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Learning Tools Interoperability(LTI)® Assignment and Grade Services Version 2.0 OpenAPI Specs
The following information represents LTI™ Assignment and Grade Services via the Swagger UI.
Updates as of 2019-07-31 :
- The response of Results.GET was modified to return an array to align with the spec .
- The response of LineItem.GET (startDateTime and endDateTime) was modified to align with the spec .
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Canvas LMS - REST API and Extensions Documentation
External tools can be associated with Canvas assignments so that students are able to experience an integrated offering of the tool. Tools can also leverage LTI services to return submissions and/or scores back to the Canvas gradebook.
The specifics for how grading is achieved depend on the LTI version being used:
LTI Advantage: Assignment and Grading Services
Lti 1.1 grade passback tools.
Tools become associated with Canvas assignments either through the UI during assignment creation , or by the tool using the Line Items Service to create assignments.
If configured in via the Canvas UI, Course Designers (Admins/Instructors) will see a submission type called "External Tool" during assignment creation where they can select a tool configuration to use for the assignment. The assignment_selection placement is often used in conjunction with the deep linking specification to allow an Instructor or Course Designer to launch out to the tool and select a specific resource to be associated to the assignment. When students view the assignment, instead of seeing a standard Canvas assignment they'll see the tool loaded in an iframe on the page.
LTI 1.3 tools can be configured to have access to the Assignment and Grading Services (AGS). Assignment and Grading Services are a powerful way for tools to interact with the LMS gradebook to save time for instructors and students.
Some examples of use cases that are uniquely solvable using AGS that were not resolvable by the LTI 1.1 Outcomes Service include:
- External tools can return scores for assignments without the need of students ever accessing the tool.
- Using the Line Items service tools can create columns to store grades in the gradebook without the need for instructors to manually create them using deep linking and the assignment_selection placement .
- Previously returned scores can be cleared out.
In addition to permitting these use cases, many more use cases are described in the IMS LTI Advantage Implementation Guide .
To configure an LTI 1.3 tool that has access to AGS, an LTI Developer Key must be created with the desired scopes enabled. This can either be done via the "Manual" method, or by providing raw JSON or a secure URL that hosts JSON. A full list and description of available scopes is described in the AGS documentation .
For example, the following JSON would create an LTI 1.3 tool that has access to read and write scores, check for existing scores, and manage line items (ex. assignments) that are associated with the tool:
NOTE: Using AGS does not require configuration of any specific placements, so the placement(s) here could be any placement(s).
Canvas supports the following AGS services:
Before a tool can run AGS requests, it must be available in the course that it wishes to interact with, and also complete the OAuth2 Client Credentials grant to obtain an access token. This covered in depth in the IMS LTI Security Framework, SEC 4 .
Like all requests made to the Canvas API, AGS requests are throttled (see the Throttling docs for details) to ensure that Canvas stays up and running. Unlike normal API requests which are made with a token specific to a user, AGS tokens are specific to a tool installation for a Course or an Account, and so there is the possibility of many more requests in a short amount of time. As long as you as a tool provider keep requests more-or-less sequential, and pay attention to the request throttling headers as detailed in the above doc, even this elevated level of requests per token should not be limited.
Common Error Codes
Below are some common error codes that you might encounter while using the Assignment and Grade Services API. Each code also comes with some advice for fixing your issue.
Canvas has extended several AGS endpoints to support deeper grading integrations. Here, we will focus on these extensions and describe how tools can be configured to leverage AGS in Canvas.
Line Item Extension: Creating deep linked assignments
The Line Item service has been extended to allow an external tool to not only create gradebook columns (i.e. assignments) in Canvas, but also connect the column/assignment to a specific LTI resource on the external tool. This means that when the student accesses the assignment from Canvas, they are able to see the external tool content directly in the page, complete their assessment on the tool side, and have grades returned without the instructor having to manually create assignments in Canvas.
This also allows tools to introduce new workflows, such as allowing instructors to launch from a Course Navigation Placement, select multiple resources, and import them into their course.
Score Extension: Creating submission data
The Score service has been extended to allow an external tool to submission data back to the Canvas Gradebook. This data is then exposed in the Submission Details and Speedgrader Views so that both students and teachers can see what was submitted to the external tool without leaving Canvas. Support for basic urls, text, and LTI links are supported.
Tools can know that they have been launched in a graded context because additional parameters are sent across when a student accesses the external tool assignment. Specifically, the lis_outcome_service_url and lis_result_sourced_id are sent as specified in the LTI 1.1 specification. Grades are passed back to Canvas from the tool's servers using the outcomes component of LTI 1.1 . Notably, one of the major limitations of the LTI 1.1 Outcomes Service is the inability of tools to return grades before a student accesses the assignment from Canvas. If this functionality is desirable, you should upgrade to LTI Advantage's Assignment and Grading Services.
Note that in the past Canvas would return a 200 HTTP response code, even if the XML in the body of the response indicated failure. This behavior has changed, and now if the imsx_codeMajor in the XML response is not success , then Canvas will return a 422 (Unprocessable Entity) HTTP response code.
Data Return Extension
Canvas sends an extension parameter for assignment launches that allows the tool provider to pass back values as submission text in canvas. The key is ext_outcome_data_values_accepted and the value is a comma separated list of types of data accepted. The currently available data types are url and text . The added launch parameter will look like this:
Returning Data Values from Tool Provider
If the external tool wants to supply these values, it can augment the POX sent with the grading value. LTI replaceResult POX
Only one type of resultData should be sent, if multiple types are sent the tool consumer behavior is undefined and is implementation-specific. Canvas will take the text value and ignore the url value if both are sent.
Add a resultData node with a text node of plain text in the same encoding as the rest of the document within it like this:
Add a resultData node with a url node within it like this:
LTI Launch URL
Add a resultData node with a ltiLaunchUrl node like this:
Total Score Return Extension
Canvas sends an extension parameter for assignment launches that allows the tool provider to pass back a raw score value instead of a percentage. The key is ext_outcome_result_total_score_accepted and the value is true . The added launch parameter will look like this:
Returning Total Score from Tool Provider
If the external tool wants to supply this value, it can augment the POX sent with the grading value. LTI replaceResult POX
Simply add a node called resultTotalScore instead of resultScore . If both are sent, then resultScore will be ignored. The textString value should be an Integer or Float value.
Submission Details Return Extension
Canvas sends an extension parameter for assignment launches that allows the tool provider to pass back submission metadata not directly related to the result.
Details about the submission the external tool wants to supply should augment the POX sent with the grading value. LTI replaceResult POX Simply add a node called submissionDetails to the replaceResultRequest node. Any data regarding the submission that is not related directly to the result will be included in this node.
Submission Submitted At Timestamp Extension
Canvas sends an extension parameter for assignment launches that allows the tool provider to pass back the submission submitted at timestamp. The key is ext_outcome_submission_submitted_at_accepted and the value is true . The added launch parameter will look like this:
Submission Submitted At Timestamp from Tool Provider
If the external tool wants to supply this value, it can augment the POX sent with the submission submitted at value. LTI replaceResult POX
Simply add a node called submittedAt to the submissionDetails node. The text string must be an iso8601 formatted timestamp . If included, then it will override any existing submitted_at value on the submission even when result score or result total score are not present.
Submission Prioritize Non-tool Grade from Tool Provider
If an external tool wants to honor/preserve any grading done in Canvas by a human, it can augment the POX sent with a prioritize non-tool grade tag.
Simply add a node called prioritizeNonToolGrade to the submissionDetails node. The tag expects no data, just its presence is all that is required for Canvas. If included, any grading done by something other than an LTI tool will be preserved.
Submission Needs Additional Review
If an external tool wants to tell canvas that grading isn't final and additional review is needed by the instructor, it can augment the POX sent with the needs additional review grade tag.
Simply add a node called needsAdditionalReview to the submissionDetails node. The tag expects no data, just its presence is all that is required for Canvas. If included, the Canvas gradebook will signal to the teacher additional grading action is needed.
LTI and Moodle
Assignments and grades service.
- ◄ Possibility of multiple grades on 1 LTI module of a user
- LTI Configuration Details ►
Re: Assignments and Grades service
Assignment and Grade Services
Nov 11, 2022 • knowledge, information.
- Assignment & Grade Services is only available for the Affirm product.
- Assignment & Grade Services requires additional setup before teachers can use it. Administrators must complete the configuration steps for your LMS: Brightspace | Schoology
- Assignment & Grade Services requires your district to be fully rostered within Great Minds prior to utilizing this feature.
- Assignment & Grade Services requires your LMS course to be successfully paired with your Great Minds class. If you have not yet paired your class, follow these instructions first: Pair Class
- To send student scores from Great Minds to your LMS Gradebook, students must SSO from your LMS into Great Minds at least once. Once students have successfully signed in, their scores will sync from Great Minds into your LMS Gradebook. If a student’s scores are not syncing (but others are), first confirm the student has accessed Great Minds via SSO from within your LMS.
- The teacher creates an assessment
- The teacher finishes scoring an assessment
- If Assignment & Grade Services is enabled for a district, all students in paired courses will get an LMS Gradebook entry line for all assessments created in their class, even if they are not assigned to a specific student. This is a limitation of the LTI sync parameters.
- If scores are changed in the LMS Gradebook after they have been synced, these changes will not transfer back to Affirm. The sync process is unidirectional from Great Minds to the LMS.
- If scores become out of sync between the LMS Gradebook and Great Minds, use the Sync Scores feature to initiate a resync of assessment scores from Great Minds.
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On the Road to LTI Advantage: Bringing Assignment and Grade Services to Moodle
The recently published IMS App Note illustrates the collaborative development between IMS Global, Cengage, Moodle TM HQ, and Unicon to bring a new LTI specification into the Moodle TM core platform.
Initially, Moodle lacked a proper integration for Cengage's digital learning solution, MindTap . Rather than building a custom plugin, Cengage worked with Unicon and Moodle HQ to bring new LTI specifications into core Moodle.
The IMS LTI Assignment and Grade Services specification has made it possible to build a fully standards-compliant solution that addresses the needs of more complex tools like MindTap . We encourage you to read the IMS App Note for a detailed description of this collaborative effort.
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Assess assignments in ways that are fair, efficient, and provide meaningful feedback to students.
1. Define your expectations for student learning
First, determine what you want students to learn. Next, decide what evidence you need to gather to know they have achieved it. This evidence will vary greatly depending on the course content, the level of students, the class size, etc., but setting this forth in clear terms is the foundation of meaningful assessment.
Here are some ideas you might consider:
- Talk about your expectations for student learning with a colleague – even better if this colleague is outside your discipline and asks questions that help you make explicit what you are looking for.
- Think about specific actions you can observe to know that learning has occurred. Will students need to provide definitions, synthesize multiple perspectives, reflect on an unexpected result, etc.? Observable actions can be integrated into a grading tool (described below).
2. Clarify your expectations to students
- Share your rubric with students when distributing an assignment so they are aware of your expectations.
- Provide examples of various levels of work (“A”, “B”, and “C” papers) from former students and have current students identify the ways in which each one addresses the criteria in your rubric. Alternatively, you could provide models of published work and lead a similar discussion. To create a bank of model assignments, consider sending a request like the following to your former students: email_request_for_model_assignments.pdf
- Have students work in groups to rank 4-5 former student assignments , similar to the one currently assigned. After student groups have “graded” the papers, lead a class discussion to clarify your own criteria and explain the grades you would give.
3. Choose grading tools that match the given task
Grading tools help to clarify expectations in advance and ensure consistent marking, whether you are grading alone, with co-instructors or with teaching assistants. It’s important to match the level of sophistication of the tool to the type of assignment. For example, in-class writing assignments may require a quick and simple approach while essays and research projects may require a more in-depth and complex grading scheme.
Here are some ideas you might consider:
- The plus/check/minus system is effective for simple tasks that are not weighted heavily. This strategy allows you to assess quickly whether students have accomplished the task or not. There are no criteria – just ask yourself, “Has the student completed the task?” The answer is yes—very well , yes—adequately , or no . See "3-Part Media Assignment" on this page for an example of an assignment graded this way.
- Use a checklist when you want to quickly determine whether a set of given criteria has been met (i.e., student provides a clear thesis statement, or student correctly cited five appropriate sources). carolyn_samuel-checklist.pdf
- Use a rubric to provide students with feedback about where their work is on a spectrum of unacceptable to excellent. Existing rubrics are available, however instructors generally need to develop rubrics for each assignment that reflect their own priorities and concerns. Developing a rubric with clear criteria takes time but is an investment that can streamline the grading process and make it more transparent to students. sample_rubric.pdf
4. Provide written comments
Writing for an audience is an important concept for students to learn, and your comments can help them understand how their work is received by a reader. What’s important is that the comments are constructive and can be applied to future work, either in your course or others with the same grading criteria.
Here are some ideas you might consider:
- Focus comments on ideas, organization, development and clarity rather than marking every mechanical error. Asking students to clarify ideas usually requires them to address writing.
- Comment on only a fraction of a paper: a selected paragraph or page and require them to apply this feedback to the remainder of the assignment. This will identify to students their strengths and areas to work on.
5. Set up a manageable and efficient grading system
- Tell students in advance what form your feedback will take. Clarify whether you use a rubric, a checklist, written comments, etc. so that they are prepared for the results.
- Address only one main strength and one main area for improvement . Cover other aspects of the paper with two statements: 1. “The most effective aspect of this paper is ____," and 2. “One thing that will significantly improve this paper or ones like it in the future is ____.”
- Have students write a cover memo to describe what they perceive as its strengths and problem areas and to request feedback on specific aspects of their work. This means that the more time and effort that they put into their questions, the more useful your feedback is likely to be.
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LTI Advantage platforms support Assignment and Grade Services and Names and Role Provisioning Services. These services include several RESTful endpoints: Assignment and Grade Services LineItems (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) Results (GET) Scores (POST) Names and Role Provisioning Services Membership (GET) … Continue reading →
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Create, submit, and grade assignments, all in Microsoft Teams .
Create an assignment
Navigate to your class team and select Assignments .
Select Create > Assignment .
Add details to your assignment
The only thing your assignment requires to be saved is a title. All other fields are optional.
Choose multiple classes or individual students in one class to assign to.
Add additional instructions
Add resources. (See below.)
Select a due date and time. (See below.)
Add a grading rubric .
Add a category .
Tip: Read more step-by-step instructions for reusing assignments, assigning quizzes, and more.
When you are finished, select Assign. To save this assignment as a draft, select Save.
More on adding resources
Select Add resources to choose an existing file or create a blank Office 365 document to assign to each student.
Select Attach .
The default for the file will be Students can't edit , which means the document is read-only. This is a great option for reference materials.
Choose assignment timeline
To set a future assign date or prevent students from turning in late assignments, select Edit underneath the due date field.
Make your selections and select Done .
Note: By default, close dates are not selected, allowing students to turn assignments in assignments.
Track student progress and access grades in Grades.
Navigate to your class team and select Grades .
Assignments appear in rows and your students in a column. Assignments are in listed in order by soonest due date. Scroll down or across to view all assignments.
You can also view students' assignment statuses:
Viewed - The student has opened and viewed the assignment.
Turned in - The student has turned in the assignment and work is ready to grade.
Returned or points - When you've graded student work, the points assigned will show. You'll see Returned if the assignment doesn't have points.
Blank - No action has been taken on the assignment yet.
You can select any cell in the Grades tab to edit it.
This will open your student's assignment with a Feedback and Points field you can fill in.
To write comments on the document itself, select Edit Document and either choose to edit in your desktop app or browser.
Select the arrows next to the student's name to navigate between student assignments.
Select Return > Return or Return for revision when you finish grading and want to return an assignment to a student. They will be notified and able to see your feedback.
Return multiple grades at once
To return multiple student grades simultaneously, select Assignments .
Select an assignment.
You can enter feedback and points here without opening student work.
Check the boxes to specify which student work to return, or select all.
Click Return > Return or Return for revision .
Tip: Learn more about the Grades tab and reviewing student work .
View and turn in assignments
Navigate to a class team and select Assignments .
To view assignment details and submit your work, select the assignment.
Attach any required materials and select Turn in .
See your grades
To view grades for assignments your educator has reviewed and sent back to you:
Select Grades in your class team.
All your assignments are listed here with the nearest due date at the top. View your status on each assignment as well as points you've received on graded work. Assignments without points will show as Returned after your educator has reviewed them.
Use the arrows next to Due date and Assignment to sort your assignments.
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