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3+ Short Research Report Examples in PDF

 short research report examples in pdf

Short Research Report

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Before you use this template, check out the  analyse your data tool and the  results workshop agenda template , which contains guidance on how to interpret your data and identify the most important findings.

Short research template

[Organisation/activity] Research Report

Time:  [Time, Date]

Author:  [Author]

In [month/year], [methods were used to unearth insights about subject of your research].

The research showed that [top three findings from the research]

Overall, this suggests that [your conclusion].

Looking ahead, the key opportunities include [list main areas of opportunity].


This document outlines the findings from a research project conducted by [who] in [time period] for the purposes of [research objective].

It includes [summarise the main sections of the report].


The methods used in the research included [list the methods that were administered].

Members of [population, e.g. attendee/community/loyalty program] were invited to participate in the research by [method, e.g. email, social media, mail]. A total of [X] invitations were issued between [date] and [date].

As an incentive, people were offered [an incentive, e.g. a $X gift card].

A total of [X] people participated in the research – providing a response rate of [X%].

It is important to note that [list any limitations], which means that caution should be used when interpreting the results.

Firstly, we asked [state the first research question].

When asked about [subject], respondents said [state top theme].

In terms of [subject], the research shows that [result].

Overall, this research suggests that [your conclusion].

The opportunities emerging from this research are:

The next steps are to:

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short research report

7+ Short Research Report Samples

Researches are made to continuously contribute to the knowledge generation that is needed to improve the world in terms of science, technology, culture, arts, etc. With this, it is very much needed to have a Short Research Report to monitor, document and improve researches. In making this, you might find yourself have a hard time making it from scratch. To avoid doing this, our site offers you free, available, ready-made yet customizable templates that you can choose for your Short Research Report needs.

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For other report template needs, our site offers templates like  Monthly Status Report ,  Project Weekly Status Report ,  Weekly Construction Progress Report,   Individual School Report ,  Problem Solving Report,   Daily Sales Report ,  Action Research Report ,  Construction Feasibility Report ,  Network Feasibility Report,  etc. Our article does not only give you free and ready-made templates but also provide you with ideas that are essential in making one. So what are you waiting for? Come! Read the article with me.

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Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods.

Reports usually are spread across a vast horizon of topics but are focused on communicating information about a particular topic and a very niche target market. The primary motive of research reports is to convey integral details about a study for marketers to consider while designing new strategies. Certain events, facts and other information based on incidents need to be relayed on to the people in charge and creating research reports is the most effective communication tool. Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. There should be a clean and structured format for these reports to be effective in relaying information.

A research report is a reliable source to recount details about a conducted research and is most often considered to be a true testimony of all the work done to garner specificities of research.

Research is imperative for launching a new product/service or a new feature. The markets today are extremely volatile and competitive due to new entrants every day who may or may not provide effective products. An organization needs to make the right decisions at the right time to be relevant in such a market with updated products that suffice customer demands.

The details of a research report may change with the purpose of research but the main components of a report will remain constant. The research approach of the market researcher also influences the style of writing reports. Here are seven main components of a productive research report:

  • Research Report Summary:  The entire objective along with the overview of research are to be included in a summary which is a couple of paragraphs in length. All the multiple components of the research are explained in brief under the report summary. It should be interesting enough to capture all the key elements of the report.
  • Research Introduction:  There always is a primary goal that the researcher is trying to achieve through a report. In the introduction section, he/she can cover answers related to this goal and establish a thesis which will be included to strive and answer it in detail.   This section should answer an integral question: “What is the current situation of the goal?”.  After the research was conducted, did the organization conclude the goal successfully or they are still a work in progress –  provide such details in the introduction part of the research report.
  • Research Methodology:  This is the most important section of the report where all the important information lies. The readers can gain data for the topic along with analyzing the quality of provided content and the research can also be approved by other market researchers. Thus, this section needs to be highly informative with each aspect of research discussed in detail. Information needs to be expressed in chronological order according to its priority and importance. Researchers should include references in case they gained information from existing techniques.
  • Research Results:  A short description of the results along with calculations conducted to achieve the goal will form this section of results. Usually, the exposition after data analysis is carried out in the discussion part of the report.
  • Research Conclusion and Recommendation :  This portion should include a short description of the overall or totality of your research. It should answer the problem statements based on what the results have shown. It should also include the recommendation or the things that you observed and you have wanted to improve.

Step 1: Identify and develop your topic.

Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information.

Step 3: Locate materials.

Step 4: Evaluate your sources.

Step 5: Make notes.

Step 6: Write your paper.

Step 7: Cite your sources properly.

Step 8: Proofread.

Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. There should be a clean and structured format for these reports to be effective in relaying information.

You might find yourself getting caught up in the report that you are making especially that you’ve got to do it from the very scratch. With this, it is highly encouraged of you to make available all the resources you can find online. What are you waiting for? Avail our templates in SampleTemplates now!

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Research Method

Home » Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types

Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types

Table of Contents

Research Report

Research Report


Research Report is a written document that presents the results of a research project or study, including the research question, methodology, results, and conclusions, in a clear and objective manner.

The purpose of a research report is to communicate the findings of the research to the intended audience, which could be other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public.

Components of Research Report

Components of Research Report are as follows:


The introduction sets the stage for the research report and provides a brief overview of the research question or problem being investigated. It should include a clear statement of the purpose of the study and its significance or relevance to the field of research. It may also provide background information or a literature review to help contextualize the research.

Literature Review

The literature review provides a critical analysis and synthesis of the existing research and scholarship relevant to the research question or problem. It should identify the gaps, inconsistencies, and contradictions in the literature and show how the current study addresses these issues. The literature review also establishes the theoretical framework or conceptual model that guides the research.


The methodology section describes the research design, methods, and procedures used to collect and analyze data. It should include information on the sample or participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques. The methodology should be clear and detailed enough to allow other researchers to replicate the study.

The results section presents the findings of the study in a clear and objective manner. It should provide a detailed description of the data and statistics used to answer the research question or test the hypothesis. Tables, graphs, and figures may be included to help visualize the data and illustrate the key findings.

The discussion section interprets the results of the study and explains their significance or relevance to the research question or problem. It should also compare the current findings with those of previous studies and identify the implications for future research or practice. The discussion should be based on the results presented in the previous section and should avoid speculation or unfounded conclusions.

The conclusion summarizes the key findings of the study and restates the main argument or thesis presented in the introduction. It should also provide a brief overview of the contributions of the study to the field of research and the implications for practice or policy.

The references section lists all the sources cited in the research report, following a specific citation style, such as APA or MLA.

The appendices section includes any additional material, such as data tables, figures, or instruments used in the study, that could not be included in the main text due to space limitations.

Types of Research Report

Types of Research Report are as follows:

Thesis is a type of research report. A thesis is a long-form research document that presents the findings and conclusions of an original research study conducted by a student as part of a graduate or postgraduate program. It is typically written by a student pursuing a higher degree, such as a Master’s or Doctoral degree, although it can also be written by researchers or scholars in other fields.

Research Paper

Research paper is a type of research report. A research paper is a document that presents the results of a research study or investigation. Research papers can be written in a variety of fields, including science, social science, humanities, and business. They typically follow a standard format that includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections.

Technical Report

A technical report is a detailed report that provides information about a specific technical or scientific problem or project. Technical reports are often used in engineering, science, and other technical fields to document research and development work.

Progress Report

A progress report provides an update on the progress of a research project or program over a specific period of time. Progress reports are typically used to communicate the status of a project to stakeholders, funders, or project managers.

Feasibility Report

A feasibility report assesses the feasibility of a proposed project or plan, providing an analysis of the potential risks, benefits, and costs associated with the project. Feasibility reports are often used in business, engineering, and other fields to determine the viability of a project before it is undertaken.

Field Report

A field report documents observations and findings from fieldwork, which is research conducted in the natural environment or setting. Field reports are often used in anthropology, ecology, and other social and natural sciences.

Experimental Report

An experimental report documents the results of a scientific experiment, including the hypothesis, methods, results, and conclusions. Experimental reports are often used in biology, chemistry, and other sciences to communicate the results of laboratory experiments.

Case Study Report

A case study report provides an in-depth analysis of a specific case or situation, often used in psychology, social work, and other fields to document and understand complex cases or phenomena.

Literature Review Report

A literature review report synthesizes and summarizes existing research on a specific topic, providing an overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject. Literature review reports are often used in social sciences, education, and other fields to identify gaps in the literature and guide future research.

Research Report Example

Following is a Research Report Example sample for Students:

Title: The Impact of Social Media on Academic Performance among High School Students

This study aims to investigate the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students. The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students. The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers, as they highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities.


Social media has become an integral part of the lives of high school students. With the widespread use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, students can connect with friends, share photos and videos, and engage in discussions on a range of topics. While social media offers many benefits, concerns have been raised about its impact on academic performance. Many studies have found a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance among high school students (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Paul, Baker, & Cochran, 2012).

Given the growing importance of social media in the lives of high school students, it is important to investigate its impact on academic performance. This study aims to address this gap by examining the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students.


The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The questionnaire was developed based on previous studies and was designed to measure the frequency and duration of social media use, as well as academic performance.

The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and the survey questionnaire was distributed in the classroom during regular school hours. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

The findings indicate that the majority of high school students use social media platforms on a daily basis, with Facebook being the most popular platform. The results also show a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students.


The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. The negative correlation between social media use and academic performance suggests that strategies should be put in place to help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. For example, educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students.


In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the negative impact of social media on academic performance among high school students. The findings highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. Further research is needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which social media use affects academic performance and to develop effective strategies for addressing this issue.


One limitation of this study is the use of convenience sampling, which limits the generalizability of the findings to other populations. Future studies should use random sampling techniques to increase the representativeness of the sample. Another limitation is the use of self-reported measures, which may be subject to social desirability bias. Future studies could use objective measures of social media use and academic performance, such as tracking software and school records.


The findings of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. Educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. For example, teachers could use social media platforms to share relevant educational resources and facilitate online discussions. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. They could also engage in open communication with their children to understand their social media use and its impact on their academic performance. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students. For example, schools could implement social media policies that restrict access during class time and encourage responsible use.


  • Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1237-1245.
  • Paul, J. A., Baker, H. M., & Cochran, J. D. (2012). Effect of online social networking on student academic performance. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 8(1), 1-19.
  • Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 652-657.
  • Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948-958.

Note*: Above mention, Example is just a sample for the students’ guide. Do not directly copy and paste as your College or University assignment. Kindly do some research and Write your own.

Applications of Research Report

Research reports have many applications, including:

  • Communicating research findings: The primary application of a research report is to communicate the results of a study to other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public. The report serves as a way to share new knowledge, insights, and discoveries with others in the field.
  • Informing policy and practice : Research reports can inform policy and practice by providing evidence-based recommendations for decision-makers. For example, a research report on the effectiveness of a new drug could inform regulatory agencies in their decision-making process.
  • Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research in a particular area. Other researchers may use the findings and methodology of a report to develop new research questions or to build on existing research.
  • Evaluating programs and interventions : Research reports can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of programs and interventions in achieving their intended outcomes. For example, a research report on a new educational program could provide evidence of its impact on student performance.
  • Demonstrating impact : Research reports can be used to demonstrate the impact of research funding or to evaluate the success of research projects. By presenting the findings and outcomes of a study, research reports can show the value of research to funders and stakeholders.
  • Enhancing professional development : Research reports can be used to enhance professional development by providing a source of information and learning for researchers and practitioners in a particular field. For example, a research report on a new teaching methodology could provide insights and ideas for educators to incorporate into their own practice.

How to write Research Report

Here are some steps you can follow to write a research report:

  • Identify the research question: The first step in writing a research report is to identify your research question. This will help you focus your research and organize your findings.
  • Conduct research : Once you have identified your research question, you will need to conduct research to gather relevant data and information. This can involve conducting experiments, reviewing literature, or analyzing data.
  • Organize your findings: Once you have gathered all of your data, you will need to organize your findings in a way that is clear and understandable. This can involve creating tables, graphs, or charts to illustrate your results.
  • Write the report: Once you have organized your findings, you can begin writing the report. Start with an introduction that provides background information and explains the purpose of your research. Next, provide a detailed description of your research methods and findings. Finally, summarize your results and draw conclusions based on your findings.
  • Proofread and edit: After you have written your report, be sure to proofread and edit it carefully. Check for grammar and spelling errors, and make sure that your report is well-organized and easy to read.
  • Include a reference list: Be sure to include a list of references that you used in your research. This will give credit to your sources and allow readers to further explore the topic if they choose.
  • Format your report: Finally, format your report according to the guidelines provided by your instructor or organization. This may include formatting requirements for headings, margins, fonts, and spacing.

Purpose of Research Report

The purpose of a research report is to communicate the results of a research study to a specific audience, such as peers in the same field, stakeholders, or the general public. The report provides a detailed description of the research methods, findings, and conclusions.

Some common purposes of a research report include:

  • Sharing knowledge: A research report allows researchers to share their findings and knowledge with others in their field. This helps to advance the field and improve the understanding of a particular topic.
  • Identifying trends: A research report can identify trends and patterns in data, which can help guide future research and inform decision-making.
  • Addressing problems: A research report can provide insights into problems or issues and suggest solutions or recommendations for addressing them.
  • Evaluating programs or interventions : A research report can evaluate the effectiveness of programs or interventions, which can inform decision-making about whether to continue, modify, or discontinue them.
  • Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies.

When to Write Research Report

A research report should be written after completing the research study. This includes collecting data, analyzing the results, and drawing conclusions based on the findings. Once the research is complete, the report should be written in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.

In academic settings, research reports are often required as part of coursework or as part of a thesis or dissertation. In this case, the report should be written according to the guidelines provided by the instructor or institution.

In other settings, such as in industry or government, research reports may be required to inform decision-making or to comply with regulatory requirements. In these cases, the report should be written as soon as possible after the research is completed in order to inform decision-making in a timely manner.

Overall, the timing of when to write a research report depends on the purpose of the research, the expectations of the audience, and any regulatory requirements that need to be met. However, it is important to complete the report in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.

Characteristics of Research Report

There are several characteristics of a research report that distinguish it from other types of writing. These characteristics include:

  • Objective: A research report should be written in an objective and unbiased manner. It should present the facts and findings of the research study without any personal opinions or biases.
  • Systematic: A research report should be written in a systematic manner. It should follow a clear and logical structure, and the information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand and follow.
  • Detailed: A research report should be detailed and comprehensive. It should provide a thorough description of the research methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Accurate : A research report should be accurate and based on sound research methods. The findings and conclusions should be supported by data and evidence.
  • Organized: A research report should be well-organized. It should include headings and subheadings to help the reader navigate the report and understand the main points.
  • Clear and concise: A research report should be written in clear and concise language. The information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand, and unnecessary jargon should be avoided.
  • Citations and references: A research report should include citations and references to support the findings and conclusions. This helps to give credit to other researchers and to provide readers with the opportunity to further explore the topic.

Advantages of Research Report

Research reports have several advantages, including:

  • Communicating research findings: Research reports allow researchers to communicate their findings to a wider audience, including other researchers, stakeholders, and the general public. This helps to disseminate knowledge and advance the understanding of a particular topic.
  • Providing evidence for decision-making : Research reports can provide evidence to inform decision-making, such as in the case of policy-making, program planning, or product development. The findings and conclusions can help guide decisions and improve outcomes.
  • Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research on a particular topic. Other researchers can build on the findings and conclusions of the report, which can lead to further discoveries and advancements in the field.
  • Demonstrating expertise: Research reports can demonstrate the expertise of the researchers and their ability to conduct rigorous and high-quality research. This can be important for securing funding, promotions, and other professional opportunities.
  • Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies. Producing a high-quality research report can help ensure compliance with these requirements.

Limitations of Research Report

Despite their advantages, research reports also have some limitations, including:

  • Time-consuming: Conducting research and writing a report can be a time-consuming process, particularly for large-scale studies. This can limit the frequency and speed of producing research reports.
  • Expensive: Conducting research and producing a report can be expensive, particularly for studies that require specialized equipment, personnel, or data. This can limit the scope and feasibility of some research studies.
  • Limited generalizability: Research studies often focus on a specific population or context, which can limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations or contexts.
  • Potential bias : Researchers may have biases or conflicts of interest that can influence the findings and conclusions of the research study. Additionally, participants may also have biases or may not be representative of the larger population, which can limit the validity and reliability of the findings.
  • Accessibility: Research reports may be written in technical or academic language, which can limit their accessibility to a wider audience. Additionally, some research may be behind paywalls or require specialized access, which can limit the ability of others to read and use the findings.

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Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

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More than one-third of energy is used in buildings worldwide, accounting for about 15 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. In cities, buildings can account for up to 80 percent of CO2 emissions. The built environment is therefore a critical part of the climate change problem and conversely, a solution. Additionally, most existing buildings were not designed for energy efficiency. In South Africa, buildings account for 27% of electricity use and 12% of the final energy use. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings is very important to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, lowering energy costs and ensuring energy security. The South African developmental Local Government paradigm makes local authorities the focal points of implementing the various regulations, standards and codes for energy efficiency in buildings set by the national and provincial governments. The Local authorities are mandated by statute to make by-laws to supplement the national building regulations for the effective operation of the building control function. The use of Energy Efficiency regulations is a very effective strategy of achieving energy consumption reduction in buildings. Four generations of energy efficiency codes and standards for buildings in the US have produced estimated energy efficiency improvements of about 60% over 30 years. The Energy Efficiency Strategy of South Africa calls for a mandatory regulatory regime, integrated into the National Building Regulations so that local authorities can implement it through their building control regulations. This research evaluated energy efficiency measures implemented through the building control regulations in the key metropolises of greater Johannesburg. Significantly, it investigated the formulation and implementation of Energy Efficiency Building Standards/Codes through the building control regulations to achieve energy efficiency in building developments under municipal jurisdictions. The study is based on a mixed methods research approach consisting of documentary review, structured questionnaires and semi-structured field interviews. The analysis was based on the key themes of investigation; the importance and awareness of energy efficiency measures in buildings, implementable energy efficiency measures through the building control regulations and the integration of energy efficiency building standards/codes in the National Building Regulations. The key finding is that the lack of a definitive legal requirement of energy efficiency measures in the national building regulations impedes the formulation and implementation of an effective energy efficiency programme through the building control mechanisms in local authorities. The main recommendation is that the proposed energy efficiency building standards/codes should be operationalized as soon as possible to provide a legal framework for the energy efficiency programmes in buildings through the building control processes, provide a foundation for the development of market transformation measures which complement the regulations and set the stage for the implementation of next generation energy efficiency measures like Zero energy buildings.


Tracey McKay

Electricity supply issues have resulted in widespread blackouts and increased utility costs in South Africa. This is placing financial pressure on universities as they have limited means of increasing their income to cover the additional energy costs and, at the same time, are energy-intensive due to peculiar usage patterns and sprawling campuses with many (and often large) buildings. Thus, they must become energy-efficient. This is a case study of one such attempt. Four main findings emerged. Firstly, energy demand side management (DSM) had to be implemented in distinct phases due to unforeseen implementation hurdles. Secondly, there are both barriers and enablers to becoming an energy-efficient campus; that is, DSM requires managerial buy-in, capacitated operational personnel and money. Thirdly, personnel can either support or hinder DSM implementation. So, while hiring dedicated , skilled personnel to harness organisational commitment to DSM is essential, all personnel need training in energy-efficient behaviour and should be held accountable for DSM initiatives within their sphere of influence. An energy champion – at the highest level of the organisation – to influence policy and drive the behavioural and structural changes required, is strongly recommended. Lastly, DSM technologies may be readily available but are not necessarily bought, installed or used correctly due to behavioural and institutional cultural constraints.

Promoting energy efficiency in a South African university


Liezel Lues

The assessment of doctoral theses: A Public Administration and Management perspective

Victoria Hurth

Encouraging the household energy efficiency of high-income earners-towards an approach for South Africa.

Akhjan Yerkin

needed for a university project

MASTER'S THESIS Development of a Renewable Energy Power Supply Outlook 2015 for the Republic of South Africa

Joleen Steyn Kotze

This article examines the root causes of factionalism within the ANC that characterised the Polokwane conference and discusses its impact on governance and service delivery at the local sphere of government using the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality as the case study. Although the ANC has historically been riddled with factionalism, the divisions that emerged within the context of the Polokwane Conference resulted in an escalation of political infighting that directly impacted on governance structures on the local government level for a protracted period of time. The article demonstrates that factionalist competition at the national sphere translated into fierce factionalist battles on a local level, affecting governance capacity of the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality. Factional battles at the local sphere however, were seemingly driven by personal political agendas, and not necessarily a concern for greater service delivery.

Bitter battles for survival:  Assessing the impact of the political factionalism in Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality’s post-Polokwane landscape

Janet Cherry

2014, From Housing to Human Settlements: Evolving Perspectives

This paper outlines the first phase of the Seaview Sustainable Settlement Pilot Project, and puts it in the context of an exploration of some of the challenges to implementing integrated and sustainable solutions to housing and service provision in South Africa

Piloting Sustainable Human Settlements in a Localised Economy

Leon A Schreiber , Mike Barry

In 2009, South Africa’s second-most populous metropolitan area, Cape Town, adopted a new strategy to usher the rule of law into shantytowns that had sprung up on its outskirts, on municipal land. Without legal property rights, most of the residents of those communities were vulnerable to eviction and had access to neither municipal services nor home addresses they could use to obtain cell phone contracts or other basic goods. Lacking both the space to relocate households and the money to build enough new houses, the city partnered with a program called Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading to pilot an in situ settlement upgrade that allowed people to remain in their homes. Through an incremental tenure approach, the city issued occupancy certificates that recognized residents’ rights to remain on the land, that protected against arbitrary eviction, and that laid the groundwork for eventual access to the services enjoyed by city residents living in legal housing. The pilot project focused on Monwabisi Park, a community of about 25,000 on the southeastern edge of Cape Town. Beginning with a full enumeration of land, structures, and occupants, the project helped construct a community register, issue occupancy certificates, and extend electric power throughout the area. By November 2016, the first phase of the project had been completed, and hundreds of residents visited the community registration office every month to update their details. Using their occupancy certificates, residents could obtain cell phones, register their children in schools, receive medication from the health department, and open furniture store accounts. However, the second phase of the project—rezoning and physically upgrading the settlement—stalled in late 2016, as Cape Town officials wrestled with the basic question of how to install water and sewerage infrastructure in situ without moving any households. Even with that pause, though, Monwabisi Park offered important lessons for other cities and countries about how to provide poorer, more-transient citizens greater stability and financial access.

Land Rights in the Township: Building Incremental Tenure in Cape Town, South Africa, 2009–2016

Theuns Pelser

Cutting edge technology management goes beyond basic research and development (R&D). Increasingly, corporate strategists are making a more precise distinction between “technology” and “technology management.” The main purpose of this study was to develop an empirically derived classification system (taxonomy) for sustaining industry leadership, through the relationships that exist between technology and innovation strategy, technology management and company performance. A non-probability, judgment sample of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) were taken. Seminal research studies were used to identify a set of technology strategy, technology management and innovation strategy dimensions. Four distinct technology factors obtained with the analysis, were proved to positively influence the company performance dimensions and were classified as Control Market Planning, Product Development Intensity, R&D Commitment and Technology Focus factors. Finally, a conceptual model has been developed to demonstrate the integrated properties of this new proposed taxonomy of technology and innovation.

Integrated strategic management taxonomy of technology and innovation

The North West Development Corporation (NWDC) in the North West Province of South Africa has its head office situated in Mafikeng and is primarily there to foster the business development of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). The empirical focus of the study was in the Ngaka Modiri Molema region (Mafikeng and Zeerust) since it encapsulates the capital city of the Province and had the highest population of registered SMMEs. The research problem was the perceived lack of effective marketing communication from the NWDC regarding its support services and the lack of (researched) feedback from the registered SMMEs regarding their satisfaction with NWDC services rendered. The research objectives formulated to address the problem were to identify the marketing communication challenges of the NWDC, determine the effectiveness of NWDC’s marketing communication, establish the level of awareness by the SMMEs and to make suggestions that addressed the identified marketing communication challenges of the NWDC to SMMEs. The empirical research methods employed were exploratory, qualitative and quantitative. The population for the study comprised of all the SMMEs in the Mafikeng and Zeerust area that were registered (at the time) with the NWDC and were located in one of the NWDC Industrial Sites. A total of 82 completed questionnaires were collected by the researcher. The sample size comprised 58.6% of the total population. The study revealed that the SMMEs showed uncertainty with regards to their awareness of NWDC’s support services and communication levels. This was an indication that NWDCs marketing communication message was not effectively communicated to the SMMEs. Practical recommendations were made to the NWDC for implementation.

North West Development Corporation’s marketing communication of support services to SMMEs

Johan Olivier , Magdeline M M Tsotetsi

This paper reports that great places are best defined by the community in which they are to be developed. Defining a great place may not seem to be a difficult task, especially to an individual who is not expected to be the final user of the place. This poses the question of who should define what a great place is. One can argue without any doubt that great places ought to bring positive change to their end users and this means a lot of things; it may include job creation, entertainment, good health and other opportunities. It is unfortunate that despite the existence of “the pool of knowledge”, available definitions and best practices, communities still demonstrate dissatisfaction towards some of the “great places” created by their own municipalities, planners, corporates (through corporate responsibility funds) and even community based organisations. It is crucial to define what constitutes a great place for a specific community before any further planning can be done. This does not only bring satisfaction to the community but also to the project planner and investor. Whilst available definitions and best practices serve as a guide in formulating norms and principles towards creating great places, community members as the end users possess valuable information and insight into how a particular development will affect the everyday life of their community, what their daily challenges are and what place-based assets already exist. It is therefore essential to ensure that a great place is one that its own community considers to be great. This can be achieved by employing a collaborative, innovative and people-orientated development process that will actively involve community members way before the conceptualisation phase of projects. It is important to perceive them as developmental partners and not just beneficiaries. In order to understand what the above statement means, this paper takes a close look at the developmental process established by one of the not-for-profit companies operating in the rural town of Magaliesburg, South Africa. The community of Magaliesburg defined a great place as a high quality destination, one that is resilient and sustainable. It is not surprising that this definition later became the developmental vision of the Magalies Development Initiative (MDI), the primary discussion subject of this paper.

A Place is not Great, not Until its User Perceives it as Such

Adriaan van Niekerk

2014, Environment, Development and Sustainability

Monitoring sustainable urban development using built-up area indicators: a case study of Stellenbosch, South Africa

Tshidi Mathibe


Keh-chin Chang

Journal of Energy in Southern Africa

Dissemination of solar water heaters in South Africa

Mike Muller

2010, Policy

Green Economy for Gauteng

Tamsanqa Nyoni

Towards Critical Success Factors for Enhancing User Trust in Cloud Computing Applications

2006, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town

Energy policies for sustainable development in South Africa's residential and electricity sectors

Linda Khoza

IIE Quick Reference Guide 2019 Harvard Style Reference Guide -Adapted for The IIE

The history of South Africa's thwarted attempt to build a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor small enough to be modular.

Fig, D. (2010) Nuclear energy rethink?: The rise and demise of South Africa's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor. Pretoria: Institute of Security Studies, paper 210

2022, Overview of the South African energy sector as of 2020

Globally, renewable energy sees by far the fastest growth, with gasification and electrification remaining the main trends. As far as the local power utility, Eskom, are concerned they consist of a fleet of thirteen (13) coal fired power stations contributing to approximately 36000MW, a nuclear power plant, four (4) gas or petroleum power stations, two (2) hydro plants and two (2) pump storage facility, collectively contributing to around 41000MW of power generation capacity. Due to the delays in the planning and decision making process for additional energy resources, the actual reserve margins managed by the local utility were depleted and as a result of unplanned maintenance in 2008 this lead to the need for load shedding across the local utility’s complete network. In addition to this, Eskom did not adhere to the basic law of economics and instead of producing competitive electricity prices a cumulative increase of 503% from 2008 to 2020 had been observed. Coal fired pants are expected to remain the dominant source for electricity generation, at least till 2030, when Kusile and Medupi are fully commissioned. The depletion of national reserve margins sparked the interest into exploring feed-in tariffs (FITs) for renewable energy, but these were later rejected in favour of competitive tenders. The resulting program, now known as the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program (REIPPPP), constituted of a public-private initiative on a massive and unprecedented scale helped to stabilise power supply and attempted to reduce South Africa’s dependence on coal and diesel, through the introduction of the use of renewable energy resources onto the national grid. In monetary terms, the Department of Energy reported that the investments into energy, renewables programme has, by 2017, brought $14-billion of foreign direct investment into the country This report highlights the key area’s of progress within the renewable energy sector in relation to South Africa’s developments as well as the current status of non-renewable energy sources, and electrification.

Overview of the energy sector in South Africa RENEWED PROJECTS

Adele Thomas

Governance at SOEs

Edzisani E Netshiozwi

2019, Review of Social Sciences

Access to energy is fundamental to meeting the economic and environmental needs of a country as well as the basic social needs for households. The study aimed at assessing the causes of failure of the South African Solar Water Heating Programme (SWHP) and the effect they had on the intended social, economic and environmental benefits. In 2009, the South African Government pronounced the national SWHP, which was meant to provide one million Solar Water Heaters (SWHs) by 2014 and four (4) million SWHs by 2030 across the country. The programme, however, experienced institutional, social and technical challenges which led to the non-achievement of the set targets. The study presents findings drawn from interviews conducted with households from two communities in the Gauteng Province (i.e. Soshanguve and Alexandra) and officials from the Department of Energy (DoE), the Gauteng Department of Economic Development (GDED) and two municipalities (i.e. City Power on behalf of the City of Johannesburg and the City of Tshwane). The study found that the programme failed due to the subsidisation of imported products, poor quality installations leading to nonfunctioning SWHs, lack of training and poor planning by the involved institutions as well as unreliable verification of the number and location of installed heaters as a result of lack of systematic reporting and independent verification. For the programme to contribute to the reduction of electricity load, reduction of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and improving the livelihood of the poor, there is a need for better ecological governance systems which include improved institutional arrangements, improved capacity for the technology and scaling up the roll-out of the SWHs as intended.

Causes of Failure of the South African Solar Water Heating Programme and the Forgone Social Benefits

Maisa Correia Adinolfi

South Africa’s major pull factors in terms of attractions include the typical must see ‘bucket list’ destinations, including Soweto, for example. The famous township has developed as a strong destination, dominating the competition from other key township destinations, with a rich political and cultural history. With Johannesburg being the second most visited city in the Middle East & Africa Region, the potential for further tourism development becomes more pronounced. Primary attractions such as Soweto become key in accessing important markets to achieve growth but for sustainability, product diversification becomes essential in order to increase the geographic spread of the benefits that tourism can bring. In contrast to the successes of tourism development in Soweto, other areas such as Hillbrow are struggling to compete at the same level. The inner city residential neighbourhood of Hillbrow was in its heyday, a popular entertainment magnet of book shops, clubs, restaurants and coffee bars. Several years later and in present day, the area is reputed as crime-ridden, suffering a variety of social ills and generally unfavourable to visit. Crime can be a debilitating factor in the development of tourism, where even the perception of its existence can make it particularly difficult to achieve economic growth. However, it is not all bleak for Hillbrow. The area offers up a melting pot of African cultures, creating opportunity to enable unity, cultural tolerance and understanding and a more diversified product base for the urban rejuvenation efforts of the city of Johannesburg. This paper explores the challenges in developing Hillbrow as a tourist destination in light of existing dominant primary attractions with key stakeholder interviews, including tour operators, local business owners and the Johannesburg tourism authority, in order to understand the challenges faced by such stakeholders and the perception of the potential for further tourism development and planning.

Barriers to Hillbrow's potential as a competitive tourist destination. IN Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of the Society of South African Geographers, 1-5 October 2018At: University of the Free State, Bloemfontein. p147-160

Pier Paolo Frassinelli

Dossier: South Africa

Aurobindo Ogra

Proceedings of the conference: Planning Africa 2014 - Making Great Places |19th - 22nd October, 2014| ICC, Durban, South Africa

South Africa’s new renewable energy sector is uniquely embedded within the country’s electricity system and in turn its unique political economy. In this paper I firstly chart major developments in the country’s energy policy and governance since the end of apartheid in order to demonstrate how electricity policy is determined by economic, political, and technological factors. Secondly I examine the contested negotiation of key policies, which have been fundamental to the introduction of a renewable energy sector. Finally I consider how the new renewable energy sector has evolved thus far and raise key challenges and concerns for its future development

Post-apartheid electricity policy and the emergence of South Africa's renewable energy sector

Jesse Burton

The role of industrial policy in meeting climate change mitigation objectives in South Africa

lerato Modiga

Prepared for: Lungile Poultry Farming (Pty) Ltd

Mediatrice Barengayabo

Proof of writting

Firoz Khan , manisha gulati


Perspectives on Energy Security and Renewable Energies in Sub-Saharan Africa Practical Opportunities and Regulatory Challenges Second Revised and Expanded Edition

This study investigates the potential contribution of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) to South Africa’s future electricity supply. By assessing different financial mechanisms, including the selling of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) and Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRECs), the viability of CSTP is demonstrated for 2008 and projected into the future to 2025. Data was collected through a number of avenues, including from the literature, through semi-structured interviews and a willingness-to-pay for “green” electricity survey in the City of Cape Town. CSTP technology is projected to experience cost reductions along a learning curve with cumulative global deployment, and the price of electricity in South Africa is projected rise as a result of the national electricity crisis. Electricity generated from CSTP becomes competitive with South Africa’s average electricity price after 2020-2025, and is already competitive with South Africa’s peaking electricity price today. With financing from the sales of CERs and TRECs CSTP generated electricity could already compete with South Africa’s average electricity price by 2013 and already is competitive with intermediated and peaking electricity from all fossil-power stations, including coal. This implies that planning for the future of South Africa’s electricity supply should be directed at CSTP and not nuclear, as it currently is. Nuclear generated electricity is also shown to be more expensive and it is argued that climate change financing, for which CSTP is eligible, will become a reliable revenue stream, which South Africa should not ignore. If South Africa is to achieve its target of reversing greenhouse gas emissions growth by 2020 – 2025 and at the same time have to build additional electricity generating capacity, it is argued that South Africa should invest in CSTP.

The Case for Concentrating Solar Thermal Power in South Africa - assessing the contribution of CER and TREC financing

Peter Newell , Lucy Baker

2014, New Political Economy

The Political Economy of Energy Transitions: The Case of South Africa

Mike Kantey

2017-09-14 05 chapter five brief history demy 8vo.doc

khanyisile mashinini


Brett Cohen

LCA of paper vs e-books.pdf

Naomi Kingu

Proceedings Asocsa 7th Built Environment Conference CapeTown

Abstract Energy-efficiency projects were expected to constitute an important project type under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In South Africa, there is significant potential for energy savings in several sectors. The savings possible in industry have been demonstrated through plant-level energy audits, measurement and verification of Eskom's Demand Side Management (DSM) programme and national energy modelling.

Energy efficiency and the CDM in South Africa: constraints and opportunities

Pieter Du Toit

Guidelines for the preparation of written assignments

Maritha Pritchard

The Gautrain: Active Communication Research on the Manifestations of the Hacker Ethic by Citizen Journalists

Holuphumiee Adegbaju


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Short Term Research Papers Samples For Students

18 samples of this type

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Organizational structure is one of the most important aspects in ensuring the organization meets both its long term and short term goals. The structure of the organization is what determines the strategic approaches of the organization in management. For the purpose of maximizing on productivity organizations will tend to come up with various retention programs for the welfare of the organization. Likewise, organizations will also focus on different customer relations management tactics to ensure that customer satisfaction is attained.

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  • Academic Skills
  • Report writing

Research reports

This quick guide will help you identify the common elements and basic format of a research report.

Research reports generally follow a similar structure and have common elements, each with a particular purpose. Learn more about each of these elements below.

Common elements of reports

Your title should be brief, topic-specific, and informative, clearly indicating the purpose and scope of your study. Include key words in your title so that search engines can easily access your work. For example:  Measurement of water around Station Pier.

An abstract is a concise summary that helps readers to quickly assess the content and direction of your paper. It should be brief, written in a single paragraph and cover: the scope and purpose of your report; an overview of methodology; a summary of the main findings or results; principal conclusions or significance of the findings; and recommendations made.

The information in the abstract must be presented in the same order as it is in your report. The abstract is usually written last when you have developed your arguments and synthesised the results.

The introduction creates the context for your research. It should provide sufficient background to allow the reader to understand and evaluate your study without needing to refer to previous publications. After reading the introduction your reader should understand exactly what your research is about, what you plan to do, why you are undertaking this research and which methods you have used. Introductions generally include:

  • The rationale for the present study. Why are you interested in this topic? Why is this topic worth investigating?
  • Key terms and definitions.
  • An outline of the research questions and hypotheses; the assumptions or propositions that your research will test.

Not all research reports have a separate literature review section. In shorter research reports, the review is usually part of the Introduction.

A literature review is a critical survey of recent relevant research in a particular field. The review should be a selection of carefully organised, focused and relevant literature that develops a narrative ‘story’ about your topic. Your review should answer key questions about the literature:

  • What is the current state of knowledge on the topic?
  • What differences in approaches / methodologies are there?
  • Where are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
  • What further research is needed? The review may identify a gap in the literature which provides a rationale for your study and supports your research questions and methodology.

The review is not just a summary of all you have read. Rather, it must develop an argument or a point of view that supports your chosen methodology and research questions.

The purpose of this section is to detail how you conducted your research so that others can understand and replicate your approach.

You need to briefly describe the subjects (if appropriate), any equipment or materials used and the approach taken. If the research method or method of data analysis is commonly used within your field of study, then simply reference the procedure. If, however, your methods are new or controversial then you need to describe them in more detail and provide a rationale for your approach. The methodology is written in the past tense and should be as concise as possible.

This section is a concise, factual summary of your findings, listed under headings appropriate to your research questions. It’s common to use tables and graphics. Raw data or details about the method of statistical analysis used should be included in the Appendices.

Present your results in a consistent manner. For example, if you present the first group of results as percentages, it will be confusing for the reader and difficult to make comparisons of data if later results are presented as fractions or as decimal values.

In general, you won’t discuss your results here. Any analysis of your results usually occurs in the Discussion section.

Notes on visual data representation:

  • Graphs and tables may be used to reveal trends in your data, but they must be explained and referred to in adjacent accompanying text.
  • Figures and tables do not simply repeat information given in the text: they summarise, amplify or complement it.
  • Graphs are always referred to as ‘Figures’, and both axes must be clearly labelled.
  • Tables must be numbered, and they must be able to stand-alone or make sense without your reader needing to read all of the accompanying text.

The Discussion responds to the hypothesis or research question. This section is where you interpret your results, account for your findings and explain their significance within the context of other research. Consider the adequacy of your sampling techniques, the scope and long-term implications of your study, any problems with data collection or analysis and any assumptions on which your study was based. This is also the place to discuss any disappointing results and address limitations.

Checklist for the discussion

  • To what extent was each hypothesis supported?
  • To what extent are your findings validated or supported by other research?
  • Were there unexpected variables that affected your results?
  • On reflection, was your research method appropriate?
  • Can you account for any differences between your results and other studies?

Conclusions in research reports are generally fairly short and should follow on naturally from points raised in the Discussion. In this section you should discuss the significance of your findings. To what extent and in what ways are your findings useful or conclusive? Is further research required? If so, based on your research experience, what suggestions could you make about improvements to the scope or methodology of future studies?

Also, consider the practical implications of your results and any recommendations you could make. For example, if your research is on reading strategies in the primary school classroom, what are the implications of your results for the classroom teacher? What recommendations could you make for teachers?

A Reference List contains all the resources you have cited in your work, while a Bibliography is a wider list containing all the resources you have consulted (but not necessarily cited) in the preparation of your work. It is important to check which of these is required, and the preferred format, style of references and presentation requirements of your own department.

Appendices (singular ‘Appendix’) provide supporting material to your project. Examples of such materials include:

  • Relevant letters to participants and organisations (e.g. regarding the ethics or conduct of the project).
  • Background reports.
  • Detailed calculations.

Different types of data are presented in separate appendices. Each appendix must be titled, labelled with a number or letter, and referred to in the body of the report.

Appendices are placed at the end of a report, and the contents are generally not included in the word count.

Fi nal ti p

While there are many common elements to research reports, it’s always best to double check the exact requirements for your task. You may find that you don’t need some sections, can combine others or have specific requirements about referencing, formatting or word limits.

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  13. Research reports

    This quick guide will help you identify the common elements and basic format of a research report at the University of Melbourne.

  14. Writing a Research Report

    Introduction - The purpose of your report. The thesis statement will be useful here. Background information may include a brief review of the literature already