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  • Latest Research Topics in Cryptography and Network Security

Network security term itself clearly depicts you that it is designed to protect the entire network from the authorized access in time of digital/analog data communication . The technologies used in network security are guaranteed to provide data confidentiality, authenticity, and availability against security risks throughout the communication.

This article is intended to display to you about latest research topics in Cryptography and Network Security with its current research areas!!!

Generally, the security mechanisms have two constituents to shield the network information . Below, we have listed the working principles of those constituents for your reference.

  • Add the security over the information. For instance , implement the encryption method over the transmitting message. So that information will be converted into a new unreadable format where the illegal user cannot access the original message until it is decrypted . Further, it also includes the code information in the header, which depends on the content of the message. Thus, it is used to detect/verify the original sender of the message.
  • In the case of sensitive data, it is necessary to share the information between only sender and receive r. The opponent party should not know the information under any conditions. In order to achieve this motive, the encryption key is used to convert the original plain text into scrambled text by the sender. Similarly, the decryption key is used to convert scrambled text into original plain text by the receiver.

For any measure, the main goal is to identify and prevent security attacks with rescue abilities . Most probably, the security measures are based on cryptographic technologies. If you take any security mechanism, then you may find the trace of encryption / some kind of data transformation .

Overview of Cryptography and Network Security

Cryptography  is basically classified into two major techniques, and they are cryptography and cryptanalysis. On the one hand,  cryptography  is the process of protecting or hiding the information through intelligent masking techniques (i.e., code the information). On the other hand,  cryptanalysis  investigates how the ciphertext is converted into plain text and vice-versa.

Due to its incredible security concern and contribution, it is largely used in many research domains and areas to improve its security aspects. Some of the current research aspects of cryptography are given as below,

  • Hashing Techniques
  • Public-Key Cryptography
  • Key Distribution and Management
  • Symmetric-Key Cryptography
  • Real-time Cryptography Applications
  • Cryptographic Security Protocols / Standards
  • Quantum Cryptography
  • Biological Cryptography
  • And many more

Network Security  is intended to develop various levels of shielding measures with an extended security scope. These measures are worked in the principle of identifying/predicting network security threats/risks to take immediate defensive response/actions. As a result, it protects the entire network information. The identification, prediction, and defensive response measures are essential to execute based on specific security policies . Few of the current research directions of the network security are given as below,

  • Incident Response System
  • Intrusion Detection and Prevention Schemes
  • Trusted Heterogeneous Networks
  • Network Security Threats, Risks and Vulnerabilities
  • Network Protection against Internet Attacks
  • Communication Technologies and Protocol Security

We hope you are clear on the fundamentals of cryptography and network security . Now, we can see the recent research areas of cryptography and network security . In truth, our research team is presently creating unbelievable contributions through our latest research topics in cryptography and network security . So, you can confidently hold your hands with us to create amazing research work.

Research Areas in Network Security

  • Heterogeneous Communication Networks
  • Cognitive Radio based Mobile Communication
  • Information Security in Self-Organized Network
  • Named data and Data / Human Centric Network
  • Ultra-band Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN)
  • Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)
  • Cognitive Radio-Wireless Sensor Network (CR-WSN)
  • Software Defined-Wireless Sensor Network (SD-WSN)
  • Hybrid ad hoc
  • Vehicular Ad hoc
  • Cognitive Radio Ad hoc
  • Underwater Network
  • Fog / Cloud-Radio Access Network (Fog-RAN / cloud-RAN)
  • Advance Cellular Networks (4G, LTEA-Pro, 5G, Beyond 5G and 6G)

Here, we have given you the achievements of cryptography while applying them in network security. For any cryptographic methods , the following are determined as the key objectives for reaching high network security .

What are the objectives of cryptography in network security?

  • Detect the attack which definitely create worst impact
  • Screen the network to monitor the behavior and activities of intruders
  • Detect the attack and analyze their effect on network after execution
  • Analyze the origin and root cause of the threats / attacks
  • Conduct in-depth inspection on different levels of attacks

Our development team is sophisticated with experienced developers, so we can solve any level of a complex issue. Here, we have given you the widely used cryptographic algorithms, classified as low-cost, lightweight, and ultra-lightweight characteristics .

Major Classifications of Cryptography Algorithms

  • Hardware Development – 2000 Gates
  • Device Capacity – AT mega 128
  • Ciphers – ECC, Grain / 128, MIBS TWINE, PRESENT, etc.
  • Software Development – 8kb RAM and 4kb ROM
  • Hardware Development – 3000 Gates
  • Device Capacity – ATiny 45, AT mega 128 and 8051 micontroller
  • Ciphers – ECC, DEXL, SOSEMANUK, CLEFIA, etc.
  • Software Development – 8kb RAM and 32kb ROM
  • Hardware Development – 1000 Gates
  • Device Capacity – ATiny 45 and 8051 microntroller
  • Ciphers – KATAN, Hummingbird, Fruitv2, QTL, etc.
  • Software Development – 256 B RAM and 4kb ROM

Research Gaps of Cryptography

Though many lightweight ciphers are introduced in cryptography, it lacks performance in any of these aspects, such as high security and low ( resource utilization, delay, internal overhead states , etc.).

Below, we can see the challenges in lightweight cryptographic techniques such as elliptic curve cryptography, stream ciphers, hash methods, and block ciphers . Our developers will pay extra attention to the following for framing lightweight security measures that assure high performance in all aspects.


  • Decrease the usage of energy / power
  • Minimize the needs of memory
  • Enhance the speed of computation
  • Optimize the Group arithmetic and Prime Fields (PF)
  • Minimize the length of the key
  • Decrease the chip area / size
  • Minimize the Key / IV setup rotations
  • Reduce the internal state / condition
  • Decrease the message and output size
  • Make the simpler cycles
  • Model the simple key schedules
  • Decrease the key and block size for fast execution

Our current study on cryptographic techniques found that ECC is less preferable than AES because of its speed. However, ECC is considered a slow process; it meets the requirement of ultra-lightweight cryptography . Our developers are glad to share the trick to increase the ECC speed for your information. If the memory needs are minimized, then eventually, it also minimizes the ROM and RAM needs. As a result, ECC gains the first priority among others. Below, we have given the list of research fields that offer a sophisticated platform for developing cryptographic techniques enabled network security applications.

Applications of Cryptography based Network Security

  • Internet of Things
  • Industrial Internet of Things
  • Haptic / Tactile Internet of things
  • Internet of Bio / Nano-Things
  • Vehicle to Infrastructure
  • Autonomous Vehicle Driving System
  • Deep-Sea Objects Identification and Analysis
  • Healthcare and Telemedicine
  • Remote Patient Monitoring using Wearable Devices
  • 360 Degree and Ultra-High Definition Videos
  • Virtual and Augmented Reality
  • Space Travel and Satellite Communication
  • WBAN based Digital Sensing and Visualization
  • Smart Environment Modeling (smart city / home / office, etc.)

Further, we have listed the top-demanding research topics in cryptography and network security . The below-given research ideas are just the samples. More than this, we have a copious amount of novel research notions. If you have your own ideas and are looking for the best guidance to craft network security research topics , we are also ready to support you in your need.

Top 10 Latest Research Topics in Cryptography and Network Security

  • Secure Cross-Layer Architecture Design
  • Security for Critical Cyber Physical Systems
  • Insider Threats Prediction and Detection Systems
  • Modeling of Security Assured Smart Grid System
  • Data Hiding, Survivability and Watermarking
  • SDN-NFV based High Performance Security System
  • Security Protocol Performance Assessments
  • Design and Development of Ultra-Efficient Security Models
  • Security in Cloud Services and Applications
  • Identification of Multi-level Security Threats with Preventive Measures
  • Improved Privacy and Security Solutions in Wireless Communications

From a development perspective, now we can see how the network security models are designed, tested, and assessed . In order to estimate the efficiency of the network security model, we can use the following for real-time development.

How do we evaluate the performance of network security?

  • Analytical Models
  • Real-time Tests

Further, we have also listed the important tools used for network security projects developments . All these tools are specialized to meet particular requirements of the network security model. For instance: Wireshark is used to generate and analyze the network packets . Likewise, we have given the other important tools and technologies for your awareness.

  • Test the vulnerabilities of the of the network at different angles through continuous scan and access
  • Probe the available susceptibilities in the application and take immediate response to that events
  • Analyze and troubleshoot the packets, network, applications, communication protocols and more
  • Collect whole information of network including OS, computer systems, and network entities

Next, we can see about the secure transmission approaches. Basically, the performance metrics have a key player role in elevating the design of transmission approaches. However, it has high importance, the modeling of physical layer security cause different kinds of technical issues . So, it is critical to select the suitable metrics for improving reliability, resource cost (low power), transmission efficiency, and energy efficiency of the transmission approaches . Our developers will help to attain your goal in the following aspects of transmission approaches.

  • Reliability – compute in terms of privacy outage probability and capacity
  • Power cost – compute in terms of power usage (low) for promising QoS
  • Transmission Efficiency – compute in terms of maximum possible privacy degree and capacity
  • Energy Efficiency – compute in terms of amount of energy required for one bit transmission and amount of bits transmitted in one unit of energy

As mentioned earlier, the above-specified metrics are sure to increase the performance of transmission approaches. And, these metrics are adopted in the time of system modelling . Further, we have improved our skills in all security-related strategies based on recent research requirements.

Last but not least, if you want to be familiar with more updates on the latest research topics in cryptography and network security , then communicate with our team. We will surely assist you in fulfilling your needs for a fine-tuning research career.

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After literature survey, we get the main issue/problem that your research topic will aim to resolve and elegant writing support to identify relevance of the issue.

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Based on the research gaps finding and importance of your research, we conclude the appropriate and specific problem statement.

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We perform the comparison between proposed and existing schemes in both quantitative and qualitative manner since it is most crucial part of any journal paper.

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public key cryptography Recently Published Documents

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The Existence of One-Way Functions

Under the assumption that there exist one-way functions, then we obtain a contradiction following a solid argumentation and therefore, one-way functions do not exist by contraposition. Hence, function problems such as the integer factorization of two large primes can be solved efficiently. In this way, we prove that is not safe many of the encryption and authentication methods such as the public-key cryptography. It could be the case that $P = NP$ or $P \neq NP$, even though there are no one-way functions. However, this result proves that $P = UP$.

Broadcast Proxy Reencryption Based on Certificateless Public Key Cryptography for Secure Data Sharing

Broadcast proxy reencryption (BPRE), which combines broadcast encryption (BE) and proxy reencryption (PRE), is a technology used for the redistribution of data uploaded on the cloud to multiple users. BPRE reencrypts data encrypted by the distributor and then uploads it to the cloud into a ciphertext that at a later stage targets multiple recipients. As a result of this, flexible data sharing is possible for multiple recipients. However, various inefficiencies and vulnerabilities of the BE, such as the recipient anonymity problem and the key escrow problem, also creep into BPRE. Our aim in this study was to address this problem of the existing BPRE technology. The partial key verification problem that appeared in the process of solving the key escrow problem was solved, and the computational efficiency was improved by not using bilinear pairing, which requires a lot of computation time.

Securing the Automatic Identification System (AIS): Using public key cryptography to prevent spoofing whilst retaining backwards compatibility

Abstract The civilian Automatic Identification System (AIS) has no inherent protection against spoofing. Spoofed AIS messages have the potential to interfere with the safe navigation of a vessel by, amongst other approaches, spoofing maritime virtual aids to navigation and/or differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) correction data conveyed across it. Acting maliciously, a single transmitter may spoof thousands of AIS messages per minute with the potential to cause considerable nuisance; compromising information provided by AIS intended to enhance the mariner's situational awareness. This work describes an approach to authenticate AIS messages using public key cryptography (PKC) and thus provide unequivocal evidence that AIS messages originate from genuine sources and so can be trusted. Improvements to the proposed AIS authentication scheme are identified which address a security weakness and help avoid false positives to spoofing caused by changes to message syntax. A channel loading investigation concludes that sufficient bandwidth is available to routinely authenticate all AIS messages whilst retaining backwards compatibility by carrying PKC ‘digital signatures’ in a separate VHF Data Exchange System (VDES) side channel.

Picpass Algorithm for Solution of Key Exchange Problem in Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Cryptography

In this dissertation a PicPass algorithm is proposed for the solution of Key Exchange problem using Symmetric and Asymmetric key cryptography. Diffie and Hellman proposed an algorithm for key exchange. But this algorithm suffers from Man-in middle attack. So to overcome this problem Seo proposed another algorithm that uses text password for the agreement between two parties. But again the password suffers from offline dictionary attack. In this, a PicPass Protocol i.e. picture is used as a password to make an agreement between two parties. The protocol contains two function i.e. picture function as well as distortion function is used to make picture in a compact size and then it is sent to receiver. Firstly the sender encrypts the Plain Text using Secret Picture and creates the Cipher Text using Symmetric key cryptography.Then the Secret Picture will be encrypted by covered picture resulting into Encrypted Picture.Now the Cipher Text and Encrypted Picture will be placed into digital envolpe and then the envelope will be send to the receiver. The receiver will receive the digital envelope, open it and then decrypt the Encrypted Picture using his Key Picture. This will result the receiver to get the Secret Picture. Now the receiver will open the Cipher Text using the Secret Picture and get the Plain Text. In between if any person wants to predict the Encrypted Picture then he cannot guess as the picture will only be decrypted using the Secret Key which will be only with the receiver. So in this dissertation, a picture is used as a password to authenticate key exchange is that gives practical solution against offline dictionary attacks only by using both private and public key cryptography.

Analysis and software implementation of the modified cryptographic Vernam cipher and the Caesar cipher

Problem. Modern cryptography is a very important part of cybersecurity and confidentiality of many operations. It covers almost all parts of our lives, from e-commerce to specialized education of students. Goal. The advantage of symmetric key cryptography is that working with this method is very easy for users, as one key is used for encryption, as well as for decryption purposes, and this key must be secret and should be known only to the sender and recipient and no one else. On the other hand, public key cryptography has two keys. Unfortunately, this exposes the inherent security flaws, as the integrity of the encryption depends entirely on the password. It was decided to consider the implementation of a modified symmetric Vernam cipher that avoids these problems, and its modification and experimental studies should further strengthen data protection. Methodology. Higher mathematics, linear algebra are very important subjects. But if we want to encourage students with cryptography, we need to use all aspects of the IT cluster more effectively. Ideal for this is the implementation of algorithms and programs using programming languages. It is very important and useful for students studying Cybersecurity to illustrate where and how it is possible to create software implementations of encryption / decryption methods. Results. The article presents the analysis and implementation of the modified cryptographic Vernam cipher and Caesar cipher using a concept that combines modern programming languages and the principles of cryptography, which students study in subject-oriented specialties. Originality. An original approach to teaching Cybersecurity students by implementing ciphers using applied programming is described. Practical value. Using cryptography as a learning tool will help students develop their programming skills and effectively understand the concept of cybersecurity in real-world examples.


This paper proposes a secure two-factor authentication (TFA) system that relies on a password and a crypto-capable device. In cases like a compromise of communication lines, server or device vulnerabilities, and offline and online attacks on user passwords, the approach provides the highest feasible security bounds given the collection of compromised components. Using either SAS Message Authentication or any PIN-based Authentication, the suggested approach constructs a TFA scheme. The paper also proposes a secure software architecture for implementing an enhanced public key cryptography system for mobile applications and an efficient implementation of this modular structure that can use any password-based client-server authentication method without relying on risky single- layer password authentication architecture.

A Multi-Message Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Edge Computing for Secure and Reliable Wireless Internet of Medical Things Communications

Thanks to recent advancements in biomedical sensors, wireless networking technologies, and information networks, traditional healthcare methods are evolving into a new healthcare infrastructure known as the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). It enables patients in remote areas to obtain preventative or proactive healthcare services at a cheaper cost through the ease of time-independent interaction. Despite the many benefits of IoMT, the ubiquitously linked devices offer significant security and privacy concerns for patient data. In the literature, several multi-message and multi-receiver signcryption schemes have been proposed that use traditional public-key cryptography, identity-based cryptography, or certificateless cryptography methods to securely transfer patient health-related data from a variety of biomedical sensors to healthcare professionals. However, certificate management, key escrow, and key distribution are all complications with these methods. Furthermore, in terms of IoMT performance and privacy requirements, they are impractical. This article aims to include edge computing into an IoMT with secure deployment employing a multi-message and multi-receiver signcryption scheme to address these issues. In the proposed method, certificate-based signcryption and hyperelliptic curve cryptography (HECC) have been coupled for excellent performance and security. The cost study confirms that the proposed scheme is better than the existing schemes in terms of computational and communication costs.

A Secure and Efficient Multi-Factor Authentication Algorithm for Mobile Money Applications

With the expansion of smartphone and financial technologies (FinTech), mobile money emerged to improve financial inclusion in many developing nations. The majority of the mobile money schemes used in these nations implement two-factor authentication (2FA) as the only means of verifying mobile money users. These 2FA schemes are vulnerable to numerous security attacks because they only use a personal identification number (PIN) and subscriber identity module (SIM). This study aims to develop a secure and efficient multi-factor authentication algorithm for mobile money applications. It uses a novel approach combining PIN, a one-time password (OTP), and a biometric fingerprint to enforce extra security during mobile money authentication. It also uses a biometric fingerprint and quick response (QR) code to confirm mobile money withdrawal. The security of the PIN and OTP is enforced by using secure hashing algorithm-256 (SHA-256), a biometric fingerprint by Fast IDentity Online (FIDO) that uses a standard public key cryptography technique (RSA), and Fernet encryption to secure a QR code and the records in the databases. The evolutionary prototyping model was adopted when developing the native mobile money application prototypes to prove that the algorithm is feasible and provides a higher degree of security. The developed applications were tested, and a detailed security analysis was conducted. The results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, efficient, and highly effective against the various threat models. It also offers secure and efficient authentication and ensures data confidentiality, integrity, non-repudiation, user anonymity, and privacy. The performance analysis indicates that it achieves better overall performance compared with the existing mobile money systems.

Twisted Edwards Elliptic Curves for Zero-Knowledge Circuits

Circuit-based zero-knowledge proofs have arose as a solution to the implementation of privacy in blockchain applications, and to current scalability problems that blockchains suffer from. The most efficient circuit-based zero-knowledge proofs use a pairing-friendly elliptic curve to generate and validate proofs. In particular, the circuits are built connecting wires that carry elements from a large prime field, whose order is determined by the number of elements of the pairing-friendly elliptic curve. In this context, it is important to generate an inner curve using this field, because it allows to create circuits that can verify public-key cryptography primitives, such as digital signatures and encryption schemes. To this purpose, in this article, we present a deterministic algorithm for generating twisted Edwards elliptic curves defined over a given prime field. We also provide an algorithm for checking the resilience of this type of curve against most common security attacks. Additionally, we use our algorithms to generate Baby Jubjub, a curve that can be used to implement elliptic-curve cryptography in circuits that can be validated in the Ethereum blockchain.

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recent research papers on cryptography

Journal of Cryptology

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  • Provides a forum for original results in all areas of cryptology
  • Covers both cryptography and cryptanalysis, including information theoretic and complexity theoretic perspectives
  • Also discusses implementation, application, and standards issues
  • The official journal of the International Association for Cryptologic Research

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  • Vincent Rijmen

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recent research papers on cryptography

Issue 1, March 2024

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Lattice-based programmable hash functions and applications.

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  • Zhenfeng Zhang
  • Content type: Research Article
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Breaking the \(O(\sqrt{n})\) -Bit Barrier: Byzantine Agreement with Polylog Bits Per Party

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recent research papers on cryptography

Beyond the Csiszár–Körner Bound: Best-Possible Wiretap Coding via Obfuscation

  • Yuval Ishai
  • Alexis Korb
  • Open Access
  • Published: 18 October 2023

recent research papers on cryptography

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The Cryptology ePrint Archive provides rapid access to recent research in cryptology. Papers have been placed here by the authors and did not undergo any refereeing process other than verifying that the work seems to be within the scope of cryptology and meets some minimal acceptance criteria and publishing conditions.

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Lattice-based programmable hash functions and applications, breach extraction attacks: exposing and addressing the leakage in second generation compromised credential checking services, cycle structure and observability of two types of galois nfsrs, new security proofs and complexity records for advanced encryption standard, submissions.

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Awesome Crypto Papers

A curated list of cryptography papers, articles, tutorials and howtos for non-cryptographers.

recent research papers on cryptography

The goal of this list is to provide educational reading material for different levels of cryptographic knowledge. I started it because my day job onboarding engineers at Cossack Labs includes educating them in cryptographic matters and giving advise what to read on specific topics, and that involves finding the same materials repeatedly. Hopefully, it will be useful for someone else as well.

It is aimed at people who are using cryptography in higher-level security systems to implement database encryption, secure sharing, end-to-end encryption in various schemes, and should understand how it works, how it fails and how it is attacked. It is not a list of notable / important / historically important papers (although many of them are here). It is not aimed at academics (who have better grasp of what they need anyway), nor it is aimed for systematic study of wanna-be cryptographers (who better follow structured approach under professional guidance).

It will be extended gradually as I find something of "must-have" value. Pull requests are very welcome.

  • Simple: cryptography for non-engineers .
  • Brief engineer-oriented introductions .
  • Hashing - important bits on modern and classic hashes.
  • Secret key cryptography - all things symmetric encryption.
  • Cryptanalysis - attacking cryptosystems.
  • Public key cryptography: General and DLP - RSA, DH and other classic techniques.
  • Public key cryptography: Elliptic-curve crypto - ECC, with focus on pratcial cryptosystems.
  • Zero Knowledge Proofs - Proofs of knowledge and other non-revealing cryptosystems.
  • Math - useful math materials in cryptographic context.
  • Post-quantum cryptography - Cryptography in post-quantum period.
  • Lectures and educational courses .
  • Online crypto challenges .

Introducing people to data security and cryptography

Simple: cryptography for non-engineers.

  • Nuts and Bolts of Encryption: A Primer for Policymakers .
  • Keys under Doormats - Or why cryptography shouldn't be backdoored, by a all-star committee of crypto researches from around the world.

Brief introductions

  • An Overview of Cryptography - By Gary C. Kessler.
  • Using Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks - By Needham, Schroeder: this is were crypto-based auth starts.
  • Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems - Fundamental cryptography paper by Claude Shannon.

General cryptographic interest

  • Another Look at “Provable Security” - Inquiries into formalism and naive intuition behind security proofs, by Neal Koblitz et al.
  • The security impact of a new cryptographic library - Introductory paper on NaCl, discussing important aspects of implementing cryptography and using it as a larger building block in security systems, by Daniel J. Bernstein, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe.

Specific topics

  • FIPS 198-1: HMACs - The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code FIPS document.
  • FIPS 202: SHA3 - SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions.
  • Birthday problem - The best simple explanation of math behind birthday attack .
  • On the Security of HMAC and NMAC Based on HAVAL, MD4, MD5, SHA-0 and SHA-1 - Security analysis of different legacy HMAC schemes by Jongsung Kim et al.
  • On the Security of Randomized CBC-MAC Beyond the Birthday Paradox Limit - Security of randomized CBC-MACs and a new construction that resists birthday paradox attacks and provably reaches full security, by E. Jaulmes et al.

Secret key cryptography

  • FIPS 197 - AES FIPS document.
  • List of proposed operation modes of AES - Maintained by NIST.
  • Recomendation for Block Cipher modes of operation: Methods and Techniques .
  • Stick figure guide to AES - If stuff above was a bit hard or you're looking for a good laugh.
  • Cache timing attacks on AES - Example of designing great practical attack on cipher implementation, by Daniel J. Bernstein.
  • Cache Attacks and Countermeasures: the Case of AES - Side channel attacks on AES, another view, by Dag Arne Osvik, Adi Shamir and Eran Tromer.
  • Salsa20 family of stream ciphers - Broad explanation of Salsa20 security cipher by Daniel J. Bernstein.
  • New Features of Latin Dances: Analysis of Salsa, ChaCha, and Rumba - Analysis of Salsa20 family of ciphers, by Jean-Philippe Aumasson et al.
  • ChaCha20-Poly1305 Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS) - IETF Draft of ciphersuite family, by Adam Langley et al.
  • AES submission document on Rijndael - Original Rijndael proposal by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen.
  • Ongoing Research Areas in Symmetric Cryptography - Overview of ongoing research in secret key crypto and hashes by ECRYPT Network of Excellence in Cryptology.
  • The Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM) - Original paper introducing GCM, by by David A. McGrew and John Viega.
  • The Security and Performance of the Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of Operation - Design, analysis and security of GCM, and, more specifically, AES GCM mode, by David A. McGrew and John Viega.
  • GCM Security Bounds Reconsidered - An analysis and algorithm for nonce generation for AES GCM with higher counter-collision probability, by Yuichi Niwa, Keisuke Ohashi, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Tetsu Iwata.
  • Proxy-Mediated Searchable Encryption in SQL Databases Using Blind Indexes - An overview of existing searchable encryption schemes, and analysis of scheme built on AES-GCM, blind index and bloom filter by Eugene Pilyankevich, Dmytro Kornieiev, Artem Storozhuk.
  • DES is not a group - Old but gold mathematical proof that the set of DES permutations (encryption and decryption for each DES key) is not closed under functional composition. That means that multiple DES encryption is not equivalent to single DES encryption and means that the size of the subgroup generated by the set of DES permutations is greater than 10^2499, which is too large for potential attacks on DES, which would exploit a small subgroup.


  • Differential Cryptanalysis of Salsa20/8 - A great example of stream cipher cryptanalysis, by Yukiyasu Tsunoo et al.
  • Slide Attacks on a Class of Hash Functions - Applying slide attacks (typical cryptanalysis technique for block ciphers) to hash functions, M. Gorski et al.
  • Self-Study Course in Block Cipher Cryptanalysis - Attempt to organize the existing literature of block-cipher cryptanalysis in a way that students can use to learn cryptanalytic techniques and ways to break new algorithms, by Bruce Schneier.
  • Statistical Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers - By Pascal Junod.
  • Cryptanalysis of block ciphers and protocols - By Elad Pinhas Barkan.
  • Too much crypto - Analysis of number of rounds for symmetric cryptography primitives, and suggestions to do fewer rounds, by Jean-Philippe Aumasson.
  • How to Break MD5 and Other Hash Functions - A 2005 paper about modular differential collision attack on MD5, MD4 and other hash functions, by Xiaoyun Wang and Hongbo Yu.
  • New attacks on Keccak-224 and Keccak-256 - A 2012 paper about using the combination of differential and algebraic techniques for collision attacks on SHA-3, by Itai Dinur, Orr Dunkelman, Adi Shamir.
  • A Single-Key Attack on the Full GOST Block Cipher - An attack ("Reflection-Meet-inthe-Middle Attack") on GOST block cipher that allows to recover key with 2^225 computations and 2^32 known plaintexts, by Takanori Isobe.
  • Intro to Linear & Differential Cryptanalysis - A beginner-friendly paper explaining and demonstrating techniques for linear and differential cryptanalysis.
  • MEGA: Malleable Encryption Goes Awry - Proof-of-concept versions of attacks on MEGA data storage. Showcasing their practicality and exploitability. Official webpage .

Public key cryptography: General and DLP

  • New Directions in Cryptography - Seminal paper by Diffie and Hellman, introducing public key cryptography and key exchange/agreement protocol.
  • RFC 2631: Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement - An explanation of the Diffie-Hellman methon in more engineering terms.
  • A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems - Original paper introducing RSA algorithm.
  • RSA Algorithm - Rather education explanation of every bit behind RSA.
  • Secure Communications Over Insecure Channels - Paper by R. Merkle, predated "New directions in cryptography" though it was published after it. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange is an implementation of such a Merkle system.
  • On the Security of Public Key Protocols - Dolev-Yao model is a formal model, used to prove properties of interactive cryptographic protocols.
  • How to Share a Secret - A safe method for sharing secrets.
  • Twenty Years of Attacks on the RSA Cryptosystem - Great inquiry into attacking RSA and it's internals, by Dan Boneh.
  • Remote timing attacks are practical - An example in attacking practical crypto implementationby D. Boneh, D. Brumley.
  • The Equivalence Between the DHP and DLP for Elliptic Curves Used in Practical Applications, Revisited - by K. Bentahar.
  • SoK: Password-Authenticated Key Exchange – Theory, Practice, Standardization and Real-World Lessons - History and classification of the PAKE algorithms.
  • RSA, DH and DSA in the Wild - Collection of implementation mistakes which lead to exploits of assymetric cryptography.

Public key cryptography: Elliptic-curve crypto

  • Elliptic Curve cryptography: A gentle introduction .
  • Explain me like I'm 5: How digital signatures actually work - EdDSA explained with ease and elegance.
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography: finite fields and discrete logarithms .
  • Detailed Elliptic Curve cryptography tutorial .
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography: ECDH and ECDSA .
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography: breaking security and a comparison with RSA .
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography: the serpentine course of a paradigm shift - Historic inquiry into development of ECC and it's adoption.
  • Let's construct an elliptic curve: Introducing Crackpot2065 - Fine example of building up ECC from scratch.
  • Explicit-Formulas Database - For many elliptic curve representation forms.
  • Curve25519: new Diffie-Hellman speed records - Paper on Curve25519.
  • Software implementation of the NIST elliptic curves over prime fields - Pracitcal example of implementing elliptic curve crypto, by M. Brown et al.
  • High-speed high-security signatures - Seminal paper on EdDSA signatures on ed25519 curve by Daniel J. Bernstein et al.
  • Recommendations for Discrete Logarithm-Based Cryptography: Elliptic Curve Domain Parameters (NIST SP 800-186) - Official NIST guide how securely implement elliptic curves. It also includes math shortcuts, optimizations and possible security risk of wrong algorithm implementation. (February 2023)
  • Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies - Computing private keys by analyzing and exploiting biases in ECDSA nonces.
  • Minerva: The curse of ECDSA nonces - Exploiting timing/bit-length leaks for recovering private keys from ECDSA signatures
  • LadderLeak: Breaking ECDSA With Less Than One Bit Of Nonce Leakage - Breaking 160-bit curve ECDSA using less than one bit leakage.

Zero Knowledge Proofs

  • Proofs of knowledge - A pair of papers which investigate the notions of proof of knowledge and proof of computational ability, M. Bellare and O. Goldreich.
  • How to construct zero-knowledge proof systems for NP - Classic paper by Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson.
  • Proofs that yield nothing but their validity and a Methodology of Cryptographic protocol design - By Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson, a relative to the above.
  • A Survey of Noninteractive Zero Knowledge Proof System and Its Applications .
  • How to Prove a Theorem So No One Else Can Claim It - By Manuel Blum.
  • Information Theoretic Reductions among Disclosure Problems - Brassau et al.
  • Knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems - By GoldWasser, Micali and Rackoff. Defining computational complexity of "knowledge" within zero knowledge proofs.
  • A Survey of Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Applications to Cryptography - Great intro on original ZKP protocols.
  • Zero Knowledge Protocols and Small Systems - A good intro into Zero knowledge protocols.
  • Multi-Theorem Preprocessing NIZKs from Lattices - Construction of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs using lattice-based preprocessing models, by Sam Kim and David J. Wu.

Key Management

  • Recommendation for Key Management – Part 1: General - Methodologically very relevant document on goals and procedures of key management.
  • Selecting Cryptographic Key Sizes - Classic paper from 1999 with guidelines for the determination of key sizes for symmetric cryptosystems, RSA, ECC, by Arjen K. Lenstra and Eric R. Verheul.
  • PRIMES is in P - Unconditional deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that determines whether an input number is prime or composite.

Post-quantum cryptography

  • Post-quantum cryptography - dealing with the fallout of physics success - Brief observation of mathematical tasks that can be used to build cryptosystems secure against attacks by post-quantum computers.
  • Post-quantum cryptography - Introduction to post-quantum cryptography.
  • Post-quantum RSA - Daniel Bernshtein's insight how to save RSA in post-quantum period.
  • MAYO: Practical Post-Quantum Signatures from Oil-and-Vinegar Maps - The Oil and Vinegar signature scheme, proposed in 1997 by Patarin, is one of the oldest and best-understood multivariate quadratic signature schemes. It has excellent performance and signature sizes. This paper is about enhancing this algorithm in usage in the post-quantum era. Official website .

That seems somewhat out of scope, isn't it? But these are books only fully available online for free. Read them as a sequence of papers if you will.

  • A Graduate Course in Applied Cryptography - By Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup. A well-balanced introductory course into cryptography, a bit of cryptanalysis and cryptography-related security.
  • Analysis and design of cryptographic hash functions, MAC algorithms and block ciphers - Broad overview of design and cryptanalysis of various ciphers and hash functions, by Bart Van Rompay.
  • CrypTool book - Predominantly mathematically oriented information on learning, using and experimenting cryptographic procedures.
  • Handbook of Applied Cryptography - By Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot and Scott A. Vanstone. Good classical introduction into cryptography and ciphers.
  • The joy of Cryptography - By Mike Rosulek. A lot of basic stuff covered really well. No ECC.
  • A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra - By Victor Shoup, excellent starters book on math universally used in cryptography.

Lectures and educational courses

  • Understanding cryptography: A textbook for Students and Practitioners - Textbook, great lectures and problems to solve.
  • Crypto101 - Crypto 101 is an introductory course on cryptography, freely available for programmers of all ages and skill levels.
  • A Course in Cryptography - Lecture notes by Rafael Pass, Abhi Shelat.
  • Lecture Notes on Cryptography - Famous set of lectures on cryptography by Shafi Goldwasser (MIT), M. Bellare (University of California).
  • Introduction to Cryptography by Christof Paar - Video course by Christof Paar (University of Bochum in Germany). In english.
  • Cryptography I - Stanford University course on Coursera, taught by prof. Dan Boneh. Cryptography II is still in development.

Online crypto challenges

Not exactly papers, but crypto challenges are awesome educational material.

Cryptopals crypto challenges .

id0-rsa crypto challenges .

MTC3 - xipher contest with more than 200 challenges of different levels, a moderated forum, and a hall-of-fame.


To the extent possible under law, author has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

Contributors 8



Cryptography refers to the methodology which is involved in establishing safe communication and ensuring data privacy. When messages are transformed into unperceivable content using cryptographic tools, they cannot be easily retrieved by attackers.  If you are facing any issues about your projects in cryptography then continue to read this article on research topics in cryptography.

Generating cryptographic keys, surfing over the web, establishing secure communication for instance financial transactions and personal mails, digital key signing, data protection, and verification are some of the major domains in which the algorithms of cryptography are used extensively. 

Here you can get an ultimate overview of cryptography research from the very basics. First, let us understand cryptography

What is cryptography?

  • Cryptography generally denotes the procedure involved in the conversion of usual data into indistinguishable information in a motive to protect it
  • Also the conversion of highly protected imperceptible data into normal text form a part of cryptography
  • Cryptography is of great significance in most of the everyday applications such as online electronic financial transactions and securing passwords etc.
  • Usually three kinds of cryptography methods are used at large

To get detailed descriptions and research-oriented explanations on various Cryptography methods you can reach out to our experts at any time. With a world-class reputation, experts at research topics in cryptography have earned the confidence of students from more than one hundred and fifty countries of the world. 

The crystal clear explanations of the mechanisms and principles behind the working of cryptography have gained us global recognition. If you are looking to get expert assistance for your Cryptography projects then you need to surely check out our website. We will now talk about the working of cryptography

Latest Research Areas in Cryptography

How does cryptography work?

  • Safe communication establishment amid third party interruptions by rivals is the major goal of cryptography
  • Proper algorithms and appropriate keys are deployed for transforming plain text data input to cipher text-based encrypted output
  • Identifying and authenticating participants
  • Critical data encryption
  • Unchangeable record creation involving permanent audit attempts
  • Security of the tools and techniques in cryptography
  • Cryptographic methodological complexities

Hence standard and highly reliable research support is essential to understand in more depth the tools, protocols, and software for establishing successful cryptography research projects . For this purpose, you can readily reach out to our experts who have guided an ample number of highly successful research topics in cryptography . So we are capable of handling any Visual Cryptography project . Let us now look into the principles behind the working of cryptography

What are the principles of cryptography?

The following are the key principles involved in cryptography for ensuring data transmission security demands

  • Since the Identity of both sender and receiver are revealed, one cannot deny any action of transmission that has been performed
  • The proof of both transmission and reception disable is a person from disowning or repudiation
  • A sender can usually authenticate the receiver with his or her particular identity
  • Since the identity of both the parties are validated efficiently, there is no room for missing out on the authentication
  • Cryptography also provides for an approach wherein a receiver can surely authenticate the messages received
  • Hence tampering of messages cannot be entertained
  • Only the authenticated user or receiver can read the data
  • Data can therefore be protected from Eavesdropping attacks

Keys play an important role in ensuring the secrecy and privacy of encrypted data in cryptosystems . Hence make sure that you protect the keys used in your project. All the encryption keys should never be stored in plain text in association with their respective protected data. If you do so, then it is the same as leaving the front door closed with keys on it. We are well known for such easily understandable analogies-based explanations in cryptography. The following methodologies are used commonly for key protection purposes thus ensuring greater security. 

  • Scrypt, bcrypt, and PBKDF2 are the algorithms that are used for both password generation and bootstrapping the cryptosystem
  • It is important to note that the password has to be very strong and known only to a few administrators
  • By doing all these you can ensure that unencrypted keys can be stored in any place
  • You can use Access Control Lists that are strong for protecting keys and storing them in file systems. The least privilege principle has to be followed for more security
  • Coding can be used to establish API calls to the hardware security module
  • As a result proper keys are provided at times of necessity and performing data decryption on the hardware security module becomes easy

Such suitable and proven methods are developed and compiled by our experts to make your cryptography project experience more interesting and informative. Therefore you can get access to authentic and reliable data needed for your projects from our experts. Massive resources and real-time research data on various research topics in Cryptography are available with us. Get in touch with us for a progressive research career. Let us now look into the Cryptography techniques that are commonly used

Techniques in Cryptography

Cryptography is one of the fastest-growing fields of research. The following are the important areas and methods in Cryptography

  • Privacy-enhancing and post-quantum cryptography methods
  • Message authentication codes and Lightweight cryptography
  • Lattice-based Cryptography and Multi-party threshold cryptography
  • Asymmetric and symmetric encryption based cryptanalysis 
  • Public key and quantum cryptography
  • Identity and attributes based encryption methods
  • Elliptic curve and pairing-based cryptography techniques

For an explanation regarding these Cryptography techniques and approaches , you shall feel free to contact us. Customized research support and on-time project delivery are our trademarks. The following are the commonly researched cryptography topics

  • Anonymous aggregation and signature
  • Homomorphic construct with signature
  • Homomorphic Encryption
  • Aggregate signature

The above fields are themselves quite large areas of research that can be significantly developed to include many other aspects of cryptography . Appropriate and crisp explanations and definitions regarding the keys and cryptographic protocols can be obtained from our website. In this respect let us discuss the important keys and their features in Cryptography

  • Secret key (stream cipher and block cipher)    
  • Hash Function (secure hash algorithm)
  • Diffie – Hellman – discrete algorithm
  • Ring – LWE – lattice-based
  • ECDH ECMOV – elliptic curve
  • ElGamal Encryption (discrete logarithm)
  • Niederreiter McEliece (code-based mathematical hard problem)
  • Elliptic Curve Encryption 
  • NTRUEncrypt (lattice-based)
  • RSA Robin (integer factorization)
  • ECDSA (elliptic curve)
  • NTRUSign (lattice-based)
  • RSA Digital Signature (factorization of integers)
  • McEliece (code-based)
  • ElGamal Signature (discrete logarithm based)

About these keys and their respective algorithms, you can reach out to our experts who have gained enough experience in handling all the advanced cryptography methods and approaches. As a result, we can provide you with well advanced, enhanced, and high-quality research guidance in all research topics in Cryptography. We will now give you a quick note on approaching any Cryptography projects in today’s world

How to do a research project in Cryptography?

  • Provide an overview with an ultimate picture of all the technologies being handled in your study
  • Discussions on appropriate technologies and their related applications
  • Quote the issues and problems in the field of your study
  • Discussion of research issues in the present literature
  • Addressing the sensitive views and issues
  • Mention the unaddressed but important issues
  • Summary on the future scope of research based on gaps identified

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Research Areas in Cryptography

  • Managing using integrated policies and distributed mechanisms for tolerance of intrusion
  • Defending Distributed Denial of Service attacks and detecting and responding towards intrusions
  • Advanced operating systems and ensuring the security of mobile codes
  • Wireless networks , mobile agent and mobile network security
  • Applied cryptography and enhancing reliability and security of networks

At present we are handling projects in all these topics and so our experts are well known about the plus and minus associated with them. Provided sufficient resources and proper technical guidance you can excel in any of these recent research topics in cryptography. 

Interests in creativity and innovations have made our technical team stay highly updated with recent developments. So your doubts regarding any latest cryptography advancements can be resolved instantaneously by us. Let’s now talk more about trending PhD Topics in cryptography

Top 6 Interesting Topics in Cryptography

Latest Research Topics in Cryptography

  • Lattice-based cryptanalysis using post-quantum based cryptography
  • Oblivious RAM and testable calculations using cloud computing methodologies
  • Highly secure processors like Intel SGX and cryptographic protocols such as TLS, Safe multiparty computing protocols, and SSL
  • Argon 2 and Script like memory-hard functions
  • Cryptography for handling Ethereum like smart contracts and Bitcoin-like Cryptocurrencies
  • Cryptography failure leading to attacks and cryptanalysis
  • Encrypted data computation like Fully Homomorphic Encryption and functional encryption

We insist that you interact with us for a complete discussion on the technicalities of these topics which will help you choose the best topic for you. Once you finalize your topic you can leave to us the limitations and issues in it as our engineers will handle them with more ease. With advances spurring every day in cryptography you can find a huge scope for future research in the field. In this regard let us look into the future trends in Cryptography below

Future trends in cryptography

  • Cryptography based computations and implementations in homomorphic encryptions and entrusted data sharing environment
  • An alternative approach for creating ledgers using distributed blockchain technology for enabling third party transactions in a trusted environment
  • Syn cookies and DoS attack prevention using Cryptography methods

In all these ways Cryptography is sure to impact the digital wellbeing of the future World. You will get a great career if you choose Cryptography projects as they have huge scope in both the present and near future. For all these topics of cryptography research, we provide ultimate support in designing projects, thesis writing , proposals, assignments, and publishing papers. So you can contact us anytime for expert tips and advanced guidance in any research topics in cryptography. 

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  6. Emerging Paradigms 1 & 2 + Post-Quantum Signatures 1 & 2 (Crypto 2023)


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