Get the most out of Google Scholar with some helpful tips on searches, email alerts, citation export, and more.
Finding recent papers
Your search results are normally sorted by relevance, not by date. To find newer articles, try the following options in the left sidebar:
- click "Since Year" to show only recently published papers, sorted by relevance;
- click "Sort by date" to show just the new additions, sorted by date;
- click the envelope icon to have new results periodically delivered by email.
Locating the full text of an article
Abstracts are freely available for most of the articles. Alas, reading the entire article may require a subscription. Here're a few things to try:
- click a library link, e.g., "[email protected]", to the right of the search result;
- click a link labeled [PDF] to the right of the search result;
- click "All versions" under the search result and check out the alternative sources;
- click "Related articles" or "Cited by" under the search result to explore similar articles.
If you're affiliated with a university, but don't see links such as "[email protected]", please check with your local library about the best way to access their online subscriptions. You may need to do search from a computer on campus, or to configure your browser to use a library proxy.
Getting better answers
If you're new to the subject, it may be helpful to pick up the terminology from secondary sources. E.g., a Wikipedia article for "overweight" might suggest a Scholar search for "pediatric hyperalimentation".
If the search results are too specific for your needs, check out what they're citing in their "References" sections. Referenced works are often more general in nature.
Similarly, if the search results are too basic for you, click "Cited by" to see newer papers that referenced them. These newer papers will often be more specific.
Explore! There's rarely a single answer to a research question. Click "Related articles" or "Cited by" to see closely related work, or search for author's name and see what else they have written.
Searching Google Scholar
Use the "author:" operator, e.g., author:"d knuth" or author:"donald e knuth".
Put the paper's title in quotations: "A History of the China Sea".
You'll often get better results if you search only recent articles, but still sort them by relevance, not by date. E.g., click "Since 2018" in the left sidebar of the search results page.
To see the absolutely newest articles first, click "Sort by date" in the sidebar. If you use this feature a lot, you may also find it useful to setup email alerts to have new results automatically sent to you.
Note: On smaller screens that don't show the sidebar, these options are available in the dropdown menu labelled "Year" right below the search button.
Select the "Case law" option on the homepage or in the side drawer on the search results page.
It finds documents similar to the given search result.
It's in the side drawer. The advanced search window lets you search in the author, title, and publication fields, as well as limit your search results by date.
Select the "Case law" option and do a keyword search over all jurisdictions. Then, click the "Select courts" link in the left sidebar on the search results page.
Tip: To quickly search a frequently used selection of courts, bookmark a search results page with the desired selection.
Access to articles
For each Scholar search result, we try to find a version of the article that you can read. These access links are labelled [PDF] or [HTML] and appear to the right of the search result. For example:
A paper that you need to read
Access links cover a wide variety of ways in which articles may be available to you - articles that your library subscribes to, open access articles, free-to-read articles from publishers, preprints, articles in repositories, etc.
When you are on a campus network, access links automatically include your library subscriptions and direct you to subscribed versions of articles. On-campus access links cover subscriptions from primary publishers as well as aggregators.
Off-campus access links let you take your library subscriptions with you when you are at home or traveling. You can read subscribed articles when you are off-campus just as easily as when you are on-campus. Off-campus access links work by recording your subscriptions when you visit Scholar while on-campus, and looking up the recorded subscriptions later when you are off-campus.
We use the recorded subscriptions to provide you with the same subscribed access links as you see on campus. We also indicate your subscription access to participating publishers so that they can allow you to read the full-text of these articles without logging in or using a proxy. The recorded subscription information expires after 30 days and is automatically deleted.
In addition to Google Scholar search results, off-campus access links can also appear on articles from publishers participating in the off-campus subscription access program. Look for links labeled [PDF] or [HTML] on the right hand side of article pages.
Anne Author , John Doe , Jane Smith , Someone Else
In this fascinating paper, we investigate various topics that would be of interest to you. We also describe new methods relevant to your project, and attempt to address several questions which you would also like to know the answer to. Lastly, we analyze …
You can disable off-campus access links on the Scholar settings page . Disabling off-campus access links will turn off recording of your library subscriptions. It will also turn off indicating subscription access to participating publishers. Once off-campus access links are disabled, you may need to identify and configure an alternate mechanism (e.g., an institutional proxy or VPN) to access your library subscriptions while off-campus.
Do a search for the topic of interest, e.g., "M Theory"; click the envelope icon in the sidebar of the search results page; enter your email address, and click "Create alert". We'll then periodically email you newly published papers that match your search criteria.
No, you can enter any email address of your choice. If the email address isn't a Google account or doesn't match your Google account, then we'll email you a verification link, which you'll need to click to start receiving alerts.
This works best if you create a public profile , which is free and quick to do. Once you get to the homepage with your photo, click "Follow" next to your name, select "New citations to my articles", and click "Done". We will then email you when we find new articles that cite yours.
Search for the title of your paper, e.g., "Anti de Sitter space and holography"; click on the "Cited by" link at the bottom of the search result; and then click on the envelope icon in the left sidebar of the search results page.
First, do a search for your colleague's name, and see if they have a Scholar profile. If they do, click on it, click the "Follow" button next to their name, select "New articles by this author", and click "Done".
If they don't have a profile, do a search by author, e.g., [author:s-hawking], and click on the mighty envelope in the left sidebar of the search results page. If you find that several different people share the same name, you may need to add co-author names or topical keywords to limit results to the author you wish to follow.
We send the alerts right after we add new papers to Google Scholar. This usually happens several times a week, except that our search robots meticulously observe holidays.
There's a link to cancel the alert at the bottom of every notification email.
If you created alerts using a Google account, you can manage them all here . If you're not using a Google account, you'll need to unsubscribe from the individual alerts and subscribe to the new ones.
Google Scholar library
Google Scholar library is your personal collection of articles. You can save articles right off the search page, organize them by adding labels, and use the power of Scholar search to quickly find just the one you want - at any time and from anywhere. You decide what goes into your library, and we’ll keep the links up to date.
You get all the goodies that come with Scholar search results - links to PDF and to your university's subscriptions, formatted citations, citing articles, and more!
Find the article you want to add in Google Scholar and click the “Save” button under the search result.
Click “My library” at the top of the page or in the side drawer to view all articles in your library. To search the full text of these articles, enter your query as usual in the search box.
Find the article you want to remove, and then click the “Delete” button under it.
- To add a label to an article, find the article in your library, click the “Label” button under it, select the label you want to apply, and click “Done”.
- To view all the articles with a specific label, click the label name in the left sidebar of your library page.
- To remove a label from an article, click the “Label” button under it, deselect the label you want to remove, and click “Done”.
- To add, edit, or delete labels, click “Manage labels” in the left column of your library page.
Only you can see the articles in your library. If you create a Scholar profile and make it public, then the articles in your public profile (and only those articles) will be visible to everyone.
Your profile contains all the articles you have written yourself. It’s a way to present your work to others, as well as to keep track of citations to it. Your library is a way to organize the articles that you’d like to read or cite, not necessarily the ones you’ve written.
Click the "Cite" button under the search result and then select your bibliography manager at the bottom of the popup. We currently support BibTeX, EndNote, RefMan, and RefWorks.
Err, no, please respect our robots.txt when you access Google Scholar using automated software. As the wearers of crawler's shoes and webmaster's hat, we cannot recommend adherence to web standards highly enough.
Sorry, we're unable to provide bulk access. You'll need to make an arrangement directly with the source of the data you're interested in. Keep in mind that a lot of the records in Google Scholar come from commercial subscription services.
Sorry, we can only show up to 1,000 results for any particular search query. Try a different query to get more results.
Google Scholar includes journal and conference papers, theses and dissertations, academic books, pre-prints, abstracts, technical reports and other scholarly literature from all broad areas of research. You'll find works from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies and university repositories, as well as scholarly articles available anywhere across the web. Google Scholar also includes court opinions and patents.
We index research articles and abstracts from most major academic publishers and repositories worldwide, including both free and subscription sources. To check current coverage of a specific source in Google Scholar, search for a sample of their article titles in quotes.
While we try to be comprehensive, it isn't possible to guarantee uninterrupted coverage of any particular source. We index articles from sources all over the web and link to these websites in our search results. If one of these websites becomes unavailable to our search robots or to a large number of web users, we have to remove it from Google Scholar until it becomes available again.
Our meticulous search robots generally try to index every paper from every website they visit, including most major sources and also many lesser known ones.
That said, Google Scholar is primarily a search of academic papers. Shorter articles, such as book reviews, news sections, editorials, announcements and letters, may or may not be included. Untitled documents and documents without authors are usually not included. Website URLs that aren't available to our search robots or to the majority of web users are, obviously, not included either. Nor do we include websites that require you to sign up for an account, install a browser plugin, watch four colorful ads, and turn around three times and say coo-coo before you can read the listing of titles scanned at 10 DPI... You get the idea, we cover academic papers from sensible websites.
That's usually because we index many of these papers from other websites, such as the websites of their primary publishers. The "site:" operator currently only searches the primary version of each paper.
It could also be that the papers are located on examplejournals.gov, not on example.gov. Please make sure you're searching for the "right" website.
That said, the best way to check coverage of a specific source is to search for a sample of their papers using the title of the paper.
Ahem, we index papers, not journals. You should also ask about our coverage of universities, research groups, proteins, seminal breakthroughs, and other dimensions that are of interest to users. All such questions are best answered by searching for a statistical sample of papers that has the property of interest - journal, author, protein, etc. Many coverage comparisons are available if you search for [allintitle:"google scholar"], but some of them are more statistically valid than others.
Currently, Google Scholar allows you to search and read published opinions of US state appellate and supreme court cases since 1950, US federal district, appellate, tax and bankruptcy courts since 1923 and US Supreme Court cases since 1791. In addition, it includes citations for cases cited by indexed opinions or journal articles which allows you to find influential cases (usually older or international) which are not yet online or publicly available.
Legal opinions in Google Scholar are provided for informational purposes only and should not be relied on as a substitute for legal advice from a licensed lawyer. Google does not warrant that the information is complete or accurate.
We normally add new papers several times a week. However, updates to existing records take 6-9 months to a year or longer, because in order to update our records, we need to first recrawl them from the source website. For many larger websites, the speed at which we can update their records is limited by the crawl rate that they allow.
Inclusion and Corrections
We apologize, and we assure you the error was unintentional. Automated extraction of information from articles in diverse fields can be tricky, so an error sometimes sneaks through.
Please write to the owner of the website where the erroneous search result is coming from, and encourage them to provide correct bibliographic data to us, as described in the technical guidelines . Once the data is corrected on their website, it usually takes 6-9 months to a year or longer for it to be updated in Google Scholar. We appreciate your help and your patience.
If you can't find your papers when you search for them by title and by author, please refer your publisher to our technical guidelines .
You can also deposit your papers into your institutional repository or put their PDF versions on your personal website, but please follow your publisher's requirements when you do so. See our technical guidelines for more details on the inclusion process.
We normally add new papers several times a week; however, it might take us some time to crawl larger websites, and corrections to already included papers can take 6-9 months to a year or longer.
Google Scholar generally reflects the state of the web as it is currently visible to our search robots and to the majority of users. When you're searching for relevant papers to read, you wouldn't want it any other way!
If your citation counts have gone down, chances are that either your paper or papers that cite it have either disappeared from the web entirely, or have become unavailable to our search robots, or, perhaps, have been reformatted in a way that made it difficult for our automated software to identify their bibliographic data and references. If you wish to correct this, you'll need to identify the specific documents with indexing problems and ask your publisher to fix them. Please refer to the technical guidelines .
Please do let us know . Please include the URL for the opinion, the corrected information and a source where we can verify the correction.
We're only able to make corrections to court opinions that are hosted on our own website. For corrections to academic papers, books, dissertations and other third-party material, click on the search result in question and contact the owner of the website where the document came from. For corrections to books from Google Book Search, click on the book's title and locate the link to provide feedback at the bottom of the book's page.
These are articles which other scholarly articles have referred to, but which we haven't found online. To exclude them from your search results, uncheck the "include citations" box on the left sidebar.
First, click on links labeled [PDF] or [HTML] to the right of the search result's title. Also, check out the "All versions" link at the bottom of the search result.
Second, if you're affiliated with a university, using a computer on campus will often let you access your library's online subscriptions. Look for links labeled with your library's name to the right of the search result's title. Also, see if there's a link to the full text on the publisher's page with the abstract.
Keep in mind that final published versions are often only available to subscribers, and that some articles are not available online at all. Good luck!
Technically, your web browser remembers your settings in a "cookie" on your computer's disk, and sends this cookie to our website along with every search. Check that your browser isn't configured to discard our cookies. Also, check if disabling various proxies or overly helpful privacy settings does the trick. Either way, your settings are stored on your computer, not on our servers, so a long hard look at your browser's preferences or internet options should help cure the machine's forgetfulness.
Not even close. That phrase is our acknowledgement that much of scholarly research involves building on what others have already discovered. It's taken from Sir Isaac Newton's famous quote, "If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants."
- Privacy & Terms
Using Google Scholar with your HarvardKey allows you to make the most of provided links, granting access to full text available through Harvard Library subscriptions.
Google Scholar can quickly surface highly cited peer-reviewed articles, abstracts, books, patents, scholarly web pages, and more.
Explore Google Scholar
Connect Google Scholar To Your Library Access
Connecting Google Scholar to your Harvard Library access is a good way to make sure you get access to articles that Harvard Library subscribes to.
- Go to Google Scholar and sign in to your Google account
- Look for the menu options
- Go into the settings and select "Library links"
- Type in Harvard and select: Harvard University - Try Harvard Library
- Deselect the box for WorldCat if shown
- Save your preferences
- Search your topic and look for the "Try Harvard Library" links to the right of the articles. This link should take you to Harvard's access to that item.
Google Scholar Tips
- Like Google, Google Scholar allows searching of metadata terms, but unlike Google, it also indexes full text.
- Choose the default search or select “Advanced search” to search by title, author, journal, and date.
- For more advanced researchers, it is possible to specify phrases in quotation marks, enter Boolean queries, or search within fields.
- You may also create an account to set up your author profile or sign up for alerts.
- In settings, you may elect to limit your search by language and show citation import links.
- Results are returned in relevance-ranked order, generally favoring entries when search terms appear in document titles and prioritizing documents with larger citation counts.
An official website of the United States government
The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.
The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.
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PubMed Central (PMC) Home Page
PubMed Central ® (PMC) is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM)
Discover a digital archive of scholarly articles, spanning centuries of scientific research.
Learn how to find and read articles of interest to you.
Browse the PMC Journal List or learn about some of PMC's unique collections.
Navigate the PMC submission methods to comply with a funder mandate, expand access, and ensure preservation.
Learn about deposit options for journals and publishers and the PMC selection process.
Find tools for bulk download, text mining, and other machine analysis.
9 MILLION articles are archived in PMC.
Content provided in part by:, full participation journals.
Journals deposit the complete contents of each issue or volume.
NIH Portfolio Journals
Journals deposit all NIH-funded articles as defined by the NIH Public Access Policy.
Selective Deposit Programs
Publisher deposits a subset of articles from a collection of journals.
May 3, 2023
Pmc public health emergency initiatives update.
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently renamed the COVID-19 and Mpox Public Health Emergency Initiatives as t…
April 19, 2023
Clarifying pmc's role as an archive.
The role of what a library means in a digital world is evolving and expanding. PMC has a large and diverse user base tha…
Second Phase of the NIH Preprint Pilot Launched
The second phase launched in January 2023 and expands the scope of the Pilot to include preprints resulting from all NIH-funded research.
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The top list of academic search engines
Academic search engines have become the number one resource to turn to in order to find research papers and other scholarly sources. While classic academic databases like Web of Science and Scopus are locked behind paywalls, Google Scholar and others can be accessed free of charge. In order to help you get your research done fast, we have compiled the top list of free academic search engines.
- 1. Google Scholar
Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only lets you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free but also often provides links to full-text PDF files.
- Coverage: approx. 200 million articles
- Abstracts: only a snippet of the abstract is available
- Related articles: ✔
- References: ✔
- Cited by: ✔
- Links to full text: ✔
- Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Vancouver, RIS, BibTeX
BASE is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany. That is also where its name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).
- Coverage: approx. 136 million articles (contains duplicates)
- Abstracts: ✔
- Related articles: ✘
- References: ✘
- Cited by: ✘
- Export formats: RIS, BibTeX
CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open-access research papers. For each search result, a link to the full-text PDF or full-text web page is provided.
- Coverage: approx. 136 million articles
- Links to full text: ✔ (all articles in CORE are open access)
- Export formats: BibTeX
- 4. Science.gov
Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need anymore to query all those resources separately!
- Coverage: approx. 200 million articles and reports
- Links to full text: ✔ (available for some databases)
- Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX (available for some databases)
- 5. Semantic Scholar
Semantic Scholar is the new kid on the block. Its mission is to provide more relevant and impactful search results using AI-powered algorithms that find hidden connections and links between research topics.
- Coverage: approx. 40 million articles
- Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, BibTeX
- 6. Baidu Scholar
Although Baidu Scholar's interface is in Chinese, its index contains research papers in English as well as Chinese.
- Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 100 million articles
- Abstracts: only snippets of the abstract are available
- Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX
RefSeek searches more than one billion documents from academic and organizational websites. Its clean interface makes it especially easy to use for students and new researchers.
- Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 1 billion documents
- Abstracts: only snippets of the article are available
- Export formats: not available
- Frequently Asked Questions about academic search enginces
Google Scholar is an academic search engine, and it is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let's you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.
Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature developed at the Allen Institute for AI. Sematic Scholar was publicly released in 2015 and uses advances in natural language processing to provide summaries for scholarly papers.
BASE , as its name suggest is an academic search engine. It is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that's where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).
CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers. For each search result a link to the full text PDF or full text web page is provided.
Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need any more to query all those resources separately!
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28 Best Academic Search Engines That make your research easier
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If you’re a researcher or scholar, you know that conducting effective online research is a critical part of your job. And if you’re like most people, you’re always on the lookout for new and better ways to do it.
I’m sure you are familiar with some research databases. But, top researchers keep an open mind and are always looking for inspiration in unexpected places.
This article aims to give you an edge over researchers that rely mainly on Google for their entire research process.
Our list of 28 academic search engines will start with the more familiar to less.
Table of Contents
#1. Google Scholar
Google Scholar is an academic search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
Great for academic research, you can use Google Scholar to find articles from academic journals, conference proceedings, theses, and dissertations. The results returned by Google Scholar are typically more relevant and reliable than those from regular search engines like Google.
Tip: You can restrict your results to peer-reviewed articles only by clicking on the “Scholarly”
- Scholarly results are typically more relevant and reliable than those from regular search engines like Google.
- You can restrict your results to peer-reviewed articles only by clicking on the “Scholarly” tab.
- Google Scholar database Coverage is extensive, with approx. 200 million articles indexed.
- Abstracts are available for most articles.
- Related articles are shown, as well as the number of times an article has been cited.
- Links to full text are available for many articles.
- Abstracts are only a snippet of the full article, so you might need to do additional searching to get the full information you need.
- Not all articles are available in full text.
Google Scholar is completely free.
#2. ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)
ERIC (short for educational resources information center) is a great academic search engine that focuses on education-related literature. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and produced by the Institute of Education Sciences.
ERIC indexes over a million articles, reports, conference papers, and other resources on all aspects of education from early childhood to higher education. So, search results are more relevant to Education on ERIC.
- Extensive coverage: ERIC indexes over a million articles, reports, and other resources on all aspects of education from early childhood to higher education.
- You can limit your results to peer-reviewed journals by clicking on the “Peer-Reviewed” tab.
- Great search engine for educators, as abstracts are available for most articles.
ERIC is a free online database of education-related literature.
#3. Wolfram Alpha
Wolfram Alpha is a “computational knowledge engine” that can answer factual questions posed in natural language. It can be a useful search tool.
Type in a question like “What is the square root of 64?” or “What is the boiling point of water?” and Wolfram Alpha will give you an answer.
Wolfram Alpha can also be used to find academic articles. Just type in your keywords and Wolfram Alpha will generate a list of academic articles that match your query.
Tip: You can restrict your results to peer-reviewed journals by clicking on the “Scholarly” tab.
- Can answer factual questions posed in natural language.
- Can be used to find academic articles.
- Results are ranked by relevance.
- Results can be overwhelming, so it’s important to narrow down your search criteria as much as possible.
- The experience feels a bit more structured but it could also be a bit restrictive
Wolfram Alpha offers a few pricing options, including a “Pro” subscription that gives you access to additional features, such as the ability to create custom reports. You can also purchase individual articles or download them for offline use.
Pro costs $5.49 and Pro Premium costs $9.99
#4. iSEEK Education
iSEEK is a search engine targeting students, teachers, administrators, and caregiver. It’s designed to be safe with editor-reviewed content.
iSEEK Education also includes a “Cited by” feature which shows you how often an article has been cited by other researchers.
- Editor-reviewed content.
- “Cited by” feature shows how often an article has been cited by other researchers.
- Limited to academic content.
- Doesn’t have the breadth of coverage that some of the other academic search engines have.
iSEEK Education is free to use.
#5. BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)
BASE is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that’s where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).
Known as “one of the most comprehensive academic web search engines,” it contains over 100 million documents from 4,000 different sources.
Users can narrow their search using the advanced search option, so regardless of whether you need a book, a review, a lecture, a video or a thesis, BASE has what you need.
BASE indexes academic articles from a variety of disciplines, including the arts, humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
- One of the world’s most voluminous search engines,
- Indexes academic articles from a variety of disciplines, especially for academic web resources
- Includes an “Advanced Search” feature that lets you restrict your results to peer-reviewed journals.
- Doesn’t include abstracts for most articles.
- Doesn’t have related articles, references, cited by
BASE is free to use.
CORE is an academic search engine that focuses on open access research papers. A link to the full text PDF or complete text web page is supplied for each search result. It’s academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers.
- Focused on open access research papers.
- Links to full text PDF or complete text web page are supplied for each search result.
- Export formats include BibTeX, Endnote, RefWorks, Zotero.
- Coverage is limited to open access research papers.
- No abstracts are available for most articles.
- No related articles, references, or cited by features.
CORE is free to use.
Science.gov is a search engine developed and managed by the United States government. It includes results from a variety of scientific databases, including NASA, EPA, USGS, and NIST.
US students are more likely to have early exposure to this tool for scholarly research.
- Coverage from a variety of scientific databases (200 million articles and reports).
- Links to full text are available for some articles.
Science.gov is free to use.
#8. Semantic Scholar
Semantic Scholar is a recent entrant to the field. Its goal is to provide more relevant and effective search results via artificial intelligence-powered methods that detect hidden relationships and connections between research topics.
- Powered by artificial intelligence, which enhances search results.
- Covers a large number of academic articles (approx. 40 million).
- Related articles, references, and cited by features are all included.
- Links to full text are available for most articles.
Semantic Scholar is free to use.
RefSeek searches more than five billion documents, including web pages, books, encyclopedias, journals, and newspapers.
This is one of the free search engines that feels like Yahoo with a massive directory. It could be good when you are just looking for research ideas from unexpected angles. It could lead you to some other database that you might not know such as the CIA The World Factbook, which is a great reference tool.
- Searches more than five billion documents.
- The Documents tab is very focused on research papers and easy to use.
- Results can be filtered by date, type of document, and language.
- Good source for free academic articles, open access journals, and technical reports.
- The navigation and user experience is very dated even to millenials…
- It requires more than 3 clicks to dig up interesting references (which is how it could lead to you something beyond the 1st page of Google)
- The top part of the results are ALL ads (well… it’s free to use)
RefSeek is free to use.
A mixture of social networking site + forum + content databases where researchers can build their profile, share research papers, and interact with one another.
Although it is not an academic search engine that goes outside of its site, ResearchGate ‘s library of works offers an excellent choice for any curious scholar.
There are more than 100 million publications available on the site from over 11 million researchers. It is possible to search by publication, data, and author, as well as to ask the researchers questions.
- A great place to find research papers and researchers.
- Can follow other researchers and get updates when they share new papers or make changes to their profile.
- The network effect can be helpful in finding people who have expertise in a particular topic.
- Interface is not as user friendly
- Can be overwhelming when trying to find relevant papers.
- Some papers are behind a paywall.
ResearchGate is free to use.
#11. DataONE Search (formerly CiteULike)
A social networking site for academics who want to share and discover academic articles and papers.
- A great place to find academic papers that have been shared by other academics.
- Some papers are behind a paywall
CiteULike is free to use.
DataElixir is deigned to help you find, understand and use data. It includes a curated list of the best open datasets, tools and resources for data science.
- Dedicated resource for finding open data sets, tools, and resources for data science.
- The website is easy to navigate.
- The content is updated regularly
- The resources are grouped by category.
- Not all of the resources are applicable to academic research.
- Some of the content is outdated.
DataElixir is free to use.
#13. LazyScholar – browser extension
LazyScholar is a free browser plugin that helps you discover free academic full texts, metrics, and instant citation and sharing links. Lazy Scholar is created Colby Vorland, a postdoctoral fellow at Indiana University.
- It can integrate with your library to find full texts even when you’re off-campus.
- Saves your history and provides an interface to find it.
- A pre-formed citation is availlable in over 900 citation styles.
- Can recommend you topics and scans new PubMed listings to suggest new papers
- Results can be a bit hit or miss
LazyScholar is free to use.
#14. CiteseerX – digital library from PenState
CiteseerX is a digital library stores and indexes research articles in Computer Science and related fields. The site has a robust search engine that allows you to filter results by date, author.
- Searches a large number of academic papers.
- Results can be filtered by date, author, and topic.
- The website is easy to use.
- You can create an account and save your searches for future reference.
CiteseerX is free to use.
#15. The Lens – patents search
The Lens or the Patent Lens is an online patent and scholarly literature search facility, provided by Cambia, an Australia-based non-profit organization.
- Searches for a large number of academic papers.
The price range can be free for non-profit use to $5,000 for commercial enterprise.
#16. Fatcat – wiki for bibliographic catalog
Fatcat is an open bibliographic catalog of written works. The scope of works is somewhat flexible, with a focus on published research outputs like journal articles, pre-prints, and conference proceedings. Records are collaboratively editable, versioned, available in bulk form, and include URL-agnostic file-level metadata.
- Open source and collaborative
- You can be part of the community that is very focused on its mission
- The archival file-level metadata (verified digests and long-term copies) is a great feature.
- Could prove to be another rabbit hole
- People either love or hate the text-only interface
#17. Lexis Web – Legal database
Are you researching legal topics? You can turn to Lexis Web for any law-related questions you may have. The results are drawn from legal sites and can be filtered based on criteria such as news, blogs, government, and commercial. Additionally, users can filter results by jurisdiction, practice area, source and file format.
- Results are drawn from legal sites.
- Filters are available based on criteria such as news, blogs, government, and commercial.
- Users can filter results by jurisdiction, practice area, source and file format.
- Not all law-related questions will be answered by this search engine.
- Coverage is limited to legal sites only.
Lexis Web is free for up to three searches per day. After that, a subscription is required.
#18. Infotopia – part of the VLRC family
Infotopia touts itself as an “alternative to Google safe search.” Scholarly book results are curated by librarians, teachers, and other educational workers. Users can select from a range of topics such as art, health, and science and technology, and then see a list of resources pertaining to the topic.
Consequently, if you aren’t able to find what you are looking for within Infotopia’s pages, you will probably find it on one of its many suggested websites.
#19. Virtual Learning Resources Center
Virtual Learning Resources Center (VLRC) is an academic search engine that features thousands of academic sites chosen by educators and librarians worldwide. Using an index generated from a research portal, university, and library internet subject guides, students and instructors can find current, authoritative information for school.
- Thousands of academic information websites indexed by it. You will also be able to get more refined results with custom Google search, which will speed up your research.
- Many people consider VLRC as one of the best free search engines to start looking for research material.
- TeachThought rated the Virtual LRC #3 in it’s list of 100 Search Engines For Academic Research
- More relevant to education
- More relevant to students
Powered by Google Custom Search Engine (CSE), Jurn is a free online search engine for accessing and downloading free full-text scholarly papers. It was created by David Haden in a public open beta version in February 2009, initially for locating open access electronic journal articles in the arts and humanities.
After the indexing process was completed, a website containing additional public directories of web links to indexed publications was introduced in mid-2009. The Jurn search service and directory has been regularly modified and cleaned since then.
- A great resource for finding academic papers that are behind paywalls.
- The content is updated regularly.uren
Jurn is free to use.
The Office of Scientific and Technical Information—a branch of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy—hosts the portal WorldWideScience , which has dubbed itself “The Global Science Gateway.”
Over 70 countries’ databases are used on the website. When a user enters a query, it contacts databases from all across the world and shows results in both English and translated journals and academic resources.
- Results can be filtered by language and type of resource
- Interface is easy to use
- Contains both academic journal articles and translated academic resources
- The website can be difficult to navigate.
WorldWideScience is free to use.
#22. Google Books
A user can browse thousands of books on Google Books, from popular titles to old titles, to find pages that include their search terms. You can look through pages, read online reviews, and find out where to buy a hard copy once you find the book you are interested in.
#23. DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)
DOAJ is a free search engine for scientific and scholarly materials. It is a searchable database with over 8,000 peer-reviewed research papers organized by subject. It’s one of the most comprehensive libraries of scientific and scholarly resources, with over 8,000 journals available on a variety of themes.
#24. Baidu Scholar
Baidu Xueshu (Academic) is the Chinese version for Google Scholar. IDU Scholar indexes academic papers from a variety of disciplines in both Chinese and English.
- Articles are available in full text PDF.
- Covers a variety of academic disciplines.
- No abstracts are available for most articles, but summaries are provided for some.
- A great portal that takes you to different specialized research platform
- You need to be able to read Chinese to use the site
- Since 2021 there is a rise of focus on China and the Chinese Communist Party
Baidu Scholar is free to use.
#25. PubMed Central
PubMed is a free search engine that provides references and abstracts for medical, life sciences, and biomedical topics.
If you’re studying anything related to healthcare or science, this site is perfect. PublicMed Central is operated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, a division of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It contains more than 3 million full-text journal articles.
It’s similar to PubMed Health, which focuses on health-related research and includes abstracts and citations to over 26 million articles.
MEDLINE® is a paid subscription database for life sciences and biomedicine that includes more than 28 million citations to journal articles. For finding reliable, carefully chosen health information, Medline Plus provides a powerful search tool and even a dictionary.
- A great database for life sciences and biomedicine.
- Contains more than 28 million references to journal articles.
- References can be filtered by date, type of document, and language.
- The database is expensive to access.
- Some people find it difficult to navigate and find what they are looking for.
MEDLINE is not free to use ( pricing information ).
Defunct Academic Search Engines
#27. microsoft academic .
Microsoft Academic Search seemed to be a failure from the beginning. It ended in 2012, then re-launched in 2016 as Microsoft Academic. It provides the researcher with the opportunity to search academic publications,
Microsoft Academic used to be the second-largest academic search engine after Google Scholar. Microsoft Academic provides a wealth of data for free, but Microsoft has announced that it will shut Microsoft Academic down in by 2022.
Designed to help researchers stay on top of the literature by setting up email alerts, based on key terms, for newspapers.
Unfortunately, academic search engines come and go. These are two that are no longer available.
There are many academic search engines that can help researchers and scholars find the information they need. This list provides a variety of options, starting with more familiar engines and moving on to less well-known ones.
Keeping an open mind and exploring different sources is essential for conducting effective online research. With so much information at our fingertips, it’s important to make sure we’re using the best tools available to us.
Tell us in the comment below which academic search engine have you not heard of? Which database do you think we should add? What database do your professional societies use? What are the most useful academic websites for research in your opinion?
There is more.
Check out our other articles on the Best Academic Tools Series for Research below.
- Learn how to get more done with these Academic Writing Tools
- Learn how to proofread your work with these Proofreading Tools
- Learn how to broaden your research landscape with these Academic Search Engines
- Learn how to manage multiple research projects with these Project Management Tools
- Learn how to run effective survey research with these Survey Tools for Research
- Learn how get more insights from important conversations and interviews with Transcription Tools
- Learn how to manage the ever-growing list of references with these Reference Management Software
- Learn how to double your productivity with literature reviews with these AI-Based Summary Generators
- Learn how to build and develop your audience with these Academic Social Network Sites
- Learn how to make sure your content is original and trustworthy with these Plagiarism Checkers
- Learn how to talk about your work effectively with these Science Communication Tools
6 thoughts on “28 Best Academic Search Engines That make your research easier”
Thank you so much Joannah..I have found this information useful to me as librarian in an academic library
You are welcome! We are happy to hear that!
Thank You Team, for providing a comprehensive list of academic search engines that can help make research easier for students and scholars. The variety of search engines included offers a range of options for finding scholarly articles, journals, and other academic resources. The article also provides a brief summary of each search engine’s features, which helps in determining which one is the best fit for a specific research topic. Overall, this article is a valuable resource for anyone looking for a quick and easy way to access a wealth of academic information.
Thank you for taking the time to share your feedback with us. We are delighted to hear that you found our list of academic search engines helpful in making research easier for students and scholars. We understand the importance of having a variety of options when it comes to finding scholarly articles, journals, and other academic resources, and we strive to provide a comprehensive list of resources to meet those needs.
We are glad that you found the brief summary of each search engine’s features helpful in determining which one is the best fit for a specific research topic. Our goal is to make it easy for our readers to access valuable academic information and we’re glad that we were able to achieve that for you.
We appreciate your support and thank you for your kind words. We will continue to provide valuable resources for students and researchers in the future. Please let us know if you have any further questions or suggestions.
No more questions Thank You
I cannot thank you enough!!! thanks alot 🙂
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- How Do I...
- Search for Articles with Google Scholar
- Adding a Library Printer to Your Laptop
The Catholic University library catalog and many of the article databases Catholic University subscribes to are accessible through Google Scholar .
Visit https://scholar.google.com and begin searching. You're good to go!
If you are off campus you will need to set the preferences so that Google will show you the resources that Catholic University provides.
- Go to https://scholar.google.com
- Look at the left corner menu icon and click Settings from the menu.
- Click on Library Links from the navbar along the side of the page.
- Enter CUA in the text field next to Library Links then click on the Search button.
- Check the box in the front of our university name, then click Save in the lower right corner.
Searching with Google Scholar
Within Google Scholar you may conduct searches by keyword, author and article title. There is also an advanced search with more options. In the result list, when you see [email protected] , that means we have access to the electronic copy for the article. Click on [email protected] , the next page will show that item in our SearchBox with a link to the full text.
Google Scholar is good for conducting simple searches across a broad number of databases. For complex or in depth searching we recommend that you search individual subject databases .
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Computer Science > Machine Learning
Title: ambient diffusion: learning clean distributions from corrupted data.
Abstract: We present the first diffusion-based framework that can learn an unknown distribution using only highly-corrupted samples. This problem arises in scientific applications where access to uncorrupted samples is impossible or expensive to acquire. Another benefit of our approach is the ability to train generative models that are less likely to memorize individual training samples since they never observe clean training data. Our main idea is to introduce additional measurement distortion during the diffusion process and require the model to predict the original corrupted image from the further corrupted image. We prove that our method leads to models that learn the conditional expectation of the full uncorrupted image given this additional measurement corruption. This holds for any corruption process that satisfies some technical conditions (and in particular includes inpainting and compressed sensing). We train models on standard benchmarks (CelebA, CIFAR-10 and AFHQ) and show that we can learn the distribution even when all the training samples have $90\%$ of their pixels missing. We also show that we can finetune foundation models on small corrupted datasets (e.g. MRI scans with block corruptions) and learn the clean distribution without memorizing the training set.
- Download a PDF of the paper titled Ambient Diffusion: Learning Clean Distributions from Corrupted Data, by Giannis Daras and 5 other authors PDF
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Astronomers are Reducing Satellite Interference in Hubble Images
Earth-Orbiting Objects Leave the Equivalent of "Scratch Marks" on Space Photos
When the Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990, there were about 470 artificial satellites orbiting Earth. By 2000, that number doubled. But by 2023, the rising number has grown almost exponentially to nearly 8,000 satellites. For Hubble this means that satellites photobomb about 10% of its exposures on celestial targets. But a typical satellite trail is very thin and will affect less than 0.5% of a single Hubble exposure.
Nevertheless, these denizens leave annoying pencil-thin, white streaks across a Hubble image as they zoom overhead. And, they are not the only image artifacts Hubble astronomers have to contend with. Cosmic rays rain onto Hubble's camera detectors. These leave what looks like "scratch marks" too. In fact, they are a bigger nuisance than satellite trails.
Astronomers at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland have developed tools for cleaning up this clutter. Hubble observations consist of more than just one exposure. And so, artifacts can be identified and subtracted between exposures because they are not in the same place on a detector.
It's estimated that by 2030 there could be ten times as many satellites circling Earth as there are now. But even as the number of satellites increases, the Space Telescope Science Institute's tools for cleaning the Hubble pictures will still be useful. To date not one Hubble science program has been affected by satellite trails.
Example of Satellite Trail in Hubble Space Telescope Exposure
Artificial satellites are photobombing the Hubble Space Telescope's snapshots as much as every two to four hours, according to researchers at Baltimore's Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).
As they whirl around Earth, the satellites leave streaks across an image, like scratches on photographic film. Hubble is in a low-Earth orbit and so many satellites in higher orbits sweep overhead. As many as 8,000 satellites circle Earth – more than half for telecommunications.
But not to worry — experts say that they are not a threat to the celebrated telescope's ongoing observations of the universe.
"We developed a new tool to identify satellite trails that is an improvement over the previous satellite software because it is much more sensitive. So we think it will be better for identifying and removing satellite trails in Hubble images," said Dave Stark of STScI.
Stark applied the new tool, based on the image analysis technique known as the Radon Transform, to identify satellite trails across Hubble's camera with the widest field of view, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).
In 2002 the satellite streaks were present in five percent of ACS exposures, with many of those too faint to discern easily. This rose to ten percent by 2022, although the typical brightness of the detected trails remained unchanged.
As the number of artificial satellites encircling Earth rises, sky contamination for all telescopes based on the ground or in Earth orbit becomes increasingly worse.
"To date, these satellite trails have not had a significant impact on research with Hubble," said Tom Brown, Head of STScI's Hubble Mission Office. "The cosmic rays that strike the telescope's detectors are a bigger nuisance."
Radiation from space hits the ACS electronic detectors on every exposure, leaving streaks. These are easy to identify from exposure to exposure. The same holds true for artificial satellites. "The average width I measured for satellites was 5 to 10 pixels. The ACS' widest view is 4,000 pixels across, so a typical trail will affect less than 0.5% of a single exposure. So not only can we flag them, but they don't impact the majority of pixels in individual Hubble images. Even as the number of satellites increases, our tools for cleaning the pictures will still be relevant," said Stark.
A Hubble science observation is assembled from a collection of multiple exposures on the same celestial target. So a satellite streaking across the sky can appear in one frame and not the next consecutive frame. Stark and collaborators developed a masking routine that identifies where the bad pixels are, the extent to which they affect the image, and then flags them. '"When we flag them, we should be able to recover the full field of view without a problem, after combining the data from all exposures," said Stark.
The Radon Transform software tool Stark used is applied in other sciences as well, such as reconstructing images from medical CT scans, and reconstructing a map of a planet's polar regions gleaned from a spacecraft. The software is ideal for identifying and characterizing linear features in an image because it sums up all the light along every possible straight path across an image. This approach combines all the light from a satellite trail, making them "pop out" in the transformed image, even many of those that are very faint in the original image.
Previous studies regarding Hubble do not pick up the fainter satellite trails. The new software is up to ten times more sensitive than prior software developed by STScI to detect satellite trials, and it identifies roughly twice as many trails as other studies.
"We have a toolbox of things that people use to clean Hubble data and calibrate it. And our new application is another tool that will help us make the best out of every Hubble exposure," said Stark.
The STScI team's research is being presented at the 242nd meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble and Webb science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, in Washington, D.C.
About This Release
Ray Villard Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
David Stark Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
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Chandra’s Group Wins Best Paper at 2023 CCGrid Conference
Department of Computer Science & Engineering professor Abhishek Chandra ’s research group won the best paper award at the 2023 International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing ( CCGrid ). The conference was held in Bangalore, India, in early May.
The paper titled, “AggFirstJoin: Optimizing Geo-Distributed Joins using Aggregation-Based Transformations” , was led by University of Minnesota alumnus Dhruv Kumar (Ph.D., 2022) and Chandra, in collaboration with Sohaib Ahmad and Ramesh K. Sitaraman from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Kumar was advised by Chandra during their Ph.D. program and is now an assistant professor at IIIT Delhi.
The paper focuses on the problem of geo-distributed data analytics. Data is increasingly being generated in an inherently distributed manner (from user devices, sites, and sensors across different locations). Traditionally, Internet companies and big businesses collect data and store it in a central location to run analysis, but this process is very costly and slow. By the time results are collected, that data may be outdated. Kumar and Chandra’s paper proposed a new method that makes this process more efficient, timely and cost effective for widely used database “join” queries that are typically very expensive.
“A lot of social media and internet services we use rely on how quickly we can analyze data and understand what is going on,” said Chandra. “For example, if you take a video streaming service like Netflix, it is important for them to understand which shows and movies users are watching at any given point in time. If one show is extremely popular, they need to know that so they can make sure that content is streamed efficiently to anyone who wants to see it without glitches. There are a number of applications for using this type of distributed data and our technique could help improve this process.”
Chandra’s group is working on a number of other projects in the distributed systems research area, including data collection for Internet of Things (IoT) devices, approximate data analytics, and implementing distributed systems in real-life settings.
“Broadly speaking, I am interested in taking data from users and devices and analyzing it quickly, efficiently and in a cost-effective manner,” said Chandra. “We are also working with Cisco on the idea of a smart classroom using edge computing to improve the experience for students. One example would be having lectures transcribed as they are happening or analyzing the whiteboard to get information to students in real time.”
CCGrid is a leading forum to disseminate and discuss research activities and results on a broad range of topics in distributed systems, ranging from computing clusters and high performance computing to widely distributed clouds and emerging Internet computing paradigms such as Fog and Edge Computing for Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data applications. The conference features keynotes, technical presentations, posters, workshops, student symposium, industry interactions, the SCALE Challenge, and the co-located ICFEC conference.
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Department of Computer Science & Engineering professor Abhishek Chandra's research group won the best paper award at the 2023 International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing ().The conference was held in Bangalore, India, in early May. The paper titled, "AggFirstJoin: Optimizing Geo-Distributed Joins using Aggregation-Based Transformations", was led by University of ...