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marketing in practice applying the case study method · „Marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod Electronic version Editors prof. dr Vinka Filipović, full professor
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1prefacemarketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
marketingin practiceapplyingthe case study mmtmmethod
dr Vesna Damnjanović, assistant professor„Marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
Editorsprof. dr Vinka Filipović, full professorprof. dr Dragana Bečejski Vujaklija, associate professorprof. dr Goran Petković, full professor
PublisherFaculty of Organisational SciencesBelgrade, Jove Ilića 154, www.fon.bg.ac.rs
On behalf of publisherprof. dr Milan Martić, Dean
CIP - Каталогизација у публикацијиНародна библиотека Србије, Београд
DAMNJANOVIĆ, Vesna, 1979-Marketing in Practice Applying the Case Study Method [Elektronski izvor] / Vesna Damnjanović. - Beograd : Fakultet organizacionih nauka, 2011 (Beogradf: Excelsior). - 1 elektronski optički disk (CD-ROM) : tekst, slika ; 12 cm
Nasl. sa naslovnog ekrana. - Tiraž 200. - About the author. - Bibliografija.
a) Маркетинг - Статистичка истраживања - Студија случајаCOBISS.SR-ID 187049484
5prefacemarketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
dr Vesna Damnjanović, docent „Marketing u praksi – Primena MMMetode studije slučaja„
R e c e n z e n t i prof. dr Vinka Filipović, red. prof.prof. dr Dragana Bečejski Vujaklija, vanr. prof.prof. dr Goran Petković, red. prof.
I z d a v a č Fakultet organizacionih nauka,Beograd, ul. Jove Ilića br. 154, www.fon.bg.ac.rs
Z a I z d a v a č a prof. dr Milan Martić, dekan Fakulteta
Dizajn korice i knjige: Srećko Dimitrijević
Š t a m p aExcelsior, Beograd
T i r a ž200 primeraka
CIP – Katalogizacija u publikacijiNarodna biblioteka Srbije, Beograd
DAMNJANOVIĆ, Vesna, 1979-Integrisane poslovne komunikacije / Vesna Damnjanović,– 1. izd. – Beograd: Fakultet organiza-cionih nauka, 2011 (Beograd: Excelsior). –??? str.: graf. prikazi, tabele; 25 cm
Tiraž 200. – Bibliografija: str.???-???.
ISBN 978-86-7680-???-7a) Marketing; b) Studija slučajaCOBISS.SR-ID??????????????
I dedicate this book to my family as a sign of gratitude for their love and support in all the important moments in life:my mother Mirjana, my father Zivko and my brother Toma.
8 9marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod table of contents
part 1 the concept and history of the case study methodmm
1. The case study methodmm The case study in education Teachers and student
1.1 the history of the evolution of the case study method in marketing Case studies and debates Applying the method today
10 11marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod table of contents
part 3part 2 the concept and history of the case study methodmm
3. The case study methodmm – teachers’ view
3.1 Writing case studies A) structure B) length C) format
3.2 Methods of presenting case studies for teachers Teaching notes and teaching plan Teaching plan for case studies Results of research on the application of the case study method among teachers at the Faculty of Organizational science
applying the case study methodmm (from the students’ point of view)
2. Active learning with the case study methodmm Individual preparation Working in small teams Working in large teams
2.1 Results of research on the application of the case study method for students from the Faculty of Organizational science Networking and future opportunitiesat competitions
12 13marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod table of contents
part 4organizing competitions in marketing management– through case studies
4. Organizing competitions in marketing management case studies Requirements Resources Types of competition Participants Jury Criteria
4.1 Role of participants at competitions where case studies are solved
4.2 Research results of company representatives on the Serbian market Advantages for companies
4.3 Advantages and problems of participants at case study competitions
part 5 the concept and history of the case study methodmm
Examples of case study
Segment a) brand management
Case study 1. Henkel Serbia – building a corporate brandthrough corporate communications Case study 2. Adria Media Serbia Case study 3. Hyundai brand Case study 4.smart brend
Segment b) managing communications
Case study 5. world of tennis – Serbian tennis portal Case study 6. Ponto e marketing 440v – sports sponsorship Case study 7. Sponsorship insights group (SIG) – a successful story with European perspective social media
Segment c) sales management
Case study 8. touché solutions Case study 9. The company Boki – sales strategy development Case study 10. Frikom – the challenges of selling ice cream
14 15marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod table of contents
literature literature from CD
about the author message to readers
Dynamic trends in the new business environment are closely related to the modernization and harmonization of systems in higher education, often with European ten-dencies. There is a focus on the advancement of quality in educational results, teaching and research. The changes in strategy in higher education in Serbia support the pro-motion of study programs that afford students skills and knowledge based on the demands of the job market and the active involvement of the student as a partner in the process of education. All of this influences institutions of higher education to be competitive because it forces them to adapt their syllabuses (curriculum) and implement interactive work methods to the educational process.
At Harvard Business School (HBS), the continued imple-mentation of the case study method represents, as an integral part of the educational process, the connectingof business schools and colleges with the business(industrial) sector. Moreover, most business schools and colleges in the United States often consult representatives of several industries prior to formulating new or modify-ing existing curriculum. This encourages collaboration with institutions of higher education and the selection of the most successful students for successful companies.
This book was written with the goal of advancing the knowledge and skills of university teachers and stu-dents in the field of marketing management that lack case studies from our (field of) practice as a supporting factor to theoretical knowledge. It is also aimed at rep-resentatives of the corporate world that apply marketing management in both theory and practice to their work, to encourage the development of new case studies in the local market, and to participate in the organization of competitions that assign and solve case studies. This book is also intended for all those interested in the issue of applying an interactive method of this kind – the case study in the educational process as an addition to existing knowledge and experience.
18 19prefacemarketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
In comparison to available domestic literature in the field of marketing management, the originality of this book lies in the presentation of eight practical examples of companies on the Serbian market and the encompass-ing of a variety of complete cases that cover the scholastic subject of marketing management: marketing research, market segmentation, choice of target market, product positioning, defining marketing mix (product, price, sales and promotion) instruments, placement of new brands on the market, implementation of marketing plans, and control (analysis) of marketing effect. The book also con-tains two foreign case studies that analyze the sponsor-ship of football in Brazil and social networks in the U.S. The case studies included in this book involve globally renowned organizations that are present in the Serbian market and domestic companies, such as independ-ent craft shops, both with the goal of understanding the specifics of business operations in different organizations and sectors within the local market.
Each case study analyzes several scholastic entities that are affiliated with and, in that manner, affect the ad-vancement of knowledge and skills of both teachers and students. For example, if the main topic of analysis within a case study is the positioning of brand X on the Serbian market, one assumes that it is necessary to analyze the phases in the process of managing marketing prior to positioning. These phases include: marketing research, market segmentation, and selection of the target mar-ket. After this first step, it is necessary to analyze possible strategies as to extending the brand in regard to market conditions and the profile of previously identified target groups. Through this process, students are able to con-nect the syllabus studied throughout the year to concrete examples from a selected industry. Also, students learn through the educational process to apply different theo-retical techniques and methods in the analysis of a case study problem and to better understand theoretical stand-ards. Thus, students attain competency, based on experi-ence during lectures and competitions, to apply
The book represents years of experience of university teachers and students at the Faculty of Organizational Science of the University of Belgrade. The first part of this book encompasses the conceptual and functional specif-ics of the case study method, while the second part covers the role of students in the educational process of analyz-ing and discussing case studies. The third part of this book discusses the view points of university teachers as to the planning (writing) and leading of case study discus-sions in the educational process. The fourth part explains the process of organizing competitions: participants and their roles, advantages and disadvantages for schools, universities, and students and company representa-tives in the assignment of real world issues in market-ing management case studies. The fifth and last part of the book shows concrete examples of local and foreign companies through specific case studies. The latter are composed and adapted as discussion material for use in the educational process. This book covers examples of several companies in the Serbian market that range from the chemical, publishing, food and beverage, automobile, leather and athletic gear industries. For the reader to have a better understanding of the case studies represented here, including their practical applications, additional visual material has been prepared on the CD that ac-companies this book, the structure of which includes analysis, problem identification and suggestions for possible case study solutions. Advice for applying case studies in the educational process is also includ-ed for university teachers and students. This advice is represented in the form of a lecture plan for its appli-cation and includes goals and lecture themes, sub-jects that can be covered by case studies, techniques and methods that can be applied in solving specific problems within case studies, skills and knowledge that is adopted after analysis and discussion of case studies, and assignments for teachers and students.
20 21prefacemarketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
• Lazar Stojkovic, General Director, touché solutions d.o.o.,• Filip Spasojevic, Owner, Svettenisa.net,• Jelena Sredojevic, Director, Svettenisa.net,• Slobodan Teodosic, Owner, SZR Boki,• Aleksandar Teodosic, Director of Sales, SZR Boki,• Renato Geribello de Carvalho, Co-Owner and General Director, Ponto e Marketing/440v Agency,• Dan Beeman, General Director, Sponsorship Insights Group (SIG).
I owe a special vote of gratitude to my friends, who have encouraged me to succeed in everything I do and whose positive energy and good faith I particularly value. Also,I would like to offer my thanks to other business partners who have been lynchpins in the process of transferring and adopting knowledge in previous years. The crea-tive support and exceptional illustrations here are the work of Marija Babic and Dusan Tadic and I owe them my gratitude for their patience and priceless talent,with which they added to the visual professionalismof Power Point Presentation.
I truly owe gratitude to the full-time undergraduate and master studies students at the Faculty of Organizational Science, as well as the students who have won awards and new experiences at several competitions and those who have dedicated their time and effort to actively solv-ing marketing management case studies. Together, they are my source of constant inspiration for connect-ing theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of marketing management.
Many thanks are included herein to Goran Ostojic and Milica Cicovacki, representatives of WUS Austria offices in Belgrade, who, as long time partners, have supported the publication of this book.
I take pleasure in thanking Danica Radisic of Crazy Fish Consulting, whose practical advice based on her many years of working and consulting experience has influ-enced the improvement and form of this book.
a new communication model called 3L, which allows me to recognize the need for listening to others, the need to learn from others and the skill to link with others (Linked-In being an irreplaceable tool in this case). All this is pos-sible if and when one works as a teacher with enthusiasm, actively participates in discussions with students, and experiences debates and classroom contact as if one were on stage. The numerous positive experiences that come from the application of the case study learning method have enabled me to deepen my perspective and under-stand how learning and the active exchange of ideas in my interaction with students can be endlessly interesting.
I would like to use this opportunity to thank Dean Milan Martic, PhD, the Board of the Faculty of Organizational Science, members of the Marketing Management and Public Relations Department and, in particular, Professor Vinka Filipovic, PhD, my mentor through my post-grad-uate and doctorate thesis and editor of this book. I would also like to express my gratitude to the consulting editors of this book, Professor Dragana Becejski Vujaklija, PhD and Professor Goran Petkovic of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Belgrade. Many thanks also go to experts who have contributed to the practical issues used herein – the representatives of companies who placed their trust in my work and trans-ferred their practical knowledge and offered invaluable information for these case studies:• Nenad Vukovic, General Director, Henkel Srbija d.o.o.,• Jelena Sarenac, Director of Corporate Communications, Henkel Srbija d.o.o.,• Bernd Rademann, General Director, Adria Media Srbija d.o.o.,• Stevan Vranes, Edition Director, Adria Media Srbija d.o.o.,• Marko Dacic, Marketing Coordinator, Adria Media Srbija d.o.o.,• Gojko Djosic, General Director, Frikom d.o.o.,• Goran Latincic, Director of Sales, Frikom d.o.o.,• Slavc Habic, General Director, Hyundai Auto Beograd d.o.o.,• Andjelka Brzulja, PR &Marketing Director, Hyundai Auto Beograd d.o.o.,
marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
the case study methodmm
24 25marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod introduction
As I was looking at shopping windows downtown, a salesman approached me, carrying in his hand a book about the rules of business written by the most suc-cessful managers of our time. He asked me if I was interested in purchasing it. I was undecided; I didnot respond in the affirmative.
I keep thinking about the title of the above mentioned book: Rules of Business. Heavy words: Rules of Business. Every industry is different. People and markets vary, as do forms of communication. One thing they do have in common, however, is that everyone in the world expects to find a sure formula for success. What I never under-stood is why people always investigate patterns on which they could base the advancement of their business.
Most people are accustomed to working by pattern. Another word that intensely bothers me is pattern. Copy/paste is a favorite function used throughout the world. I belong to those people that always stray from the cliché. This is the reason that many don’t like me and the reason for which some appreciate me. The risks are greater. Fear always exists. A word I prefer and one that always gives me the strength to advance is challenge, something that moves borders beyond expectation to set something in motion. That is what we lack.
My lectures have the goal of inspiring students to, instead of thinking after class about how they will pass an exam, consider the ways in which they can apply theory and ex-periences from the Serbian market, what they should be reading next, what they should be learning beyond this, who they should be connecting with in a given industry, which job to apply for, and which workshop, internship or competition to get involved in. Lectures invoke action. The goal is to motivate students to do something new and to channel the potential of these young people in an interactive form toward real accomplishment.Motivating people is the hardest task. Often, words alone will not make people believe that they have the potential to
accomplish something. Always invite successful indi-viduals, in whose development you may have had a role, to give lecture and in that way allow them to pass on their experience. Students will believe these individuals. Trust is attained with time. Stories are written through results, not work. If there is work and no results, then you are simply not doing your job well or you weren’t born for greater deeds.
To be born for greater deeds means to know how to learn. Constantly upgrading knowledge. I was fortunate. I was born as a champion and I was determined to learn something new every single day. At the age of two I said that I would one day be successful. My parents found this cute and a bit surprising, and while all the other children strolled in the park, I constantly ran. No one could catch up with me.
This stands true today. I’m still running in the park. The only difference is that I now have you running with me. We embark on an adventure called the challenge for knowledge. We race for new and practical experiences, which give us opportunity to evolve. Desire for new prac-tical knowledge, will give you advantage in comparison to others. Perhaps I’ve frightened you somewhat with the word knowledge. Don’t worry. After reading this book, you’ll be surprised where your desires and possibilities lie. It will be like not liking when it rains, yet knowing that the air is cleaner after the rain for a nice walk and all you need to do is choose good company and an adequate location from which you can view the colors of the rainbow.My wish was to love and enjoy everything I do. I relish life and my work. I love people. I love the colors of the rainbow. After eight years of active work, I am currently preparing the top students from the Faculty of Organiza-tional Science to participate in an international competi-tion in Seattle, Washington regarding solving real world business case studies. My dear brother recently said to me: Vesna, you are a real Mourinho. It means a lot to me that the people who love me and are close to me see how
26 marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
much energy and effort I devote to my work, while the re-sults are obvious and tangible. Many have already become accustomed to us winning first place at competitions. The goal isn’t always to win. What is important is that we apply our maximum. What matters is to, in the best possible way, apply the knowledge and skills that we have attained together and to fulfill our potential to the utmost. I always emphasize this to the students I work with. One never knows all the circumstances that will affect the course of a competition. However, it is always of the utmost signifi-cance to present and give one’s best. It’s a difficult task, but everyone on the team has their role.
The same is true in business. You might have the best solution for a client, but are unable to arrive in time for a pitch due to heavy downtown traffic or have colleagues that are, individually, experts in their field, yet do not rep-resent a synergy of knowledge as a team. I am often asked how one can become a member of a team for a competi-tion. I always offer the same answer: only the best will be invited to join the team. I am then asked what the criteria are for one to be considered among the best. The criteria are difficult to define. What differentiates the masses from the few successful individuals? Good presentation skills, creative ideas, analytical problem solving skills, a charismatic attitude and a talent for convincing rhetoric. The important char-acteristics of successful people are competent knowledge in the field in which they work, the desire to compete with others in this industry, and the ability to build long-term relationships through bilateral communication with others. A professor from Romania told me that at an international symposium that was held last year in Zlatibor, Serbia. In this book we will go through all three of these characteristics on a fast track, regarding the idea of application of case stud-ies as a vehicle to transfer good managerial practices from companies into the educational process and back into the companies again. It will be an exchange, another key word that represents learning from others in a way that offers the exchange of implementable information that will affect the further development of business and life in general.
part 1. the concept and history of the case study methodmm
28 29marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod history and concept
The goal of applying the case study method in the educa-tional and business process allows individuals and teams to have an overview of a problem and to suggest concrete solutions drawn from practical experience.
There is no universally accepted definition of the case study concept. According to author Mihailovicu, the case study method is comprised of researching all the perti-nent aspects of a phenomenon or situation, and taking the study of individuals, organizations, social groups or any other group that can be considered a whole, as a unit. The case study method is successfully used in medical, psychological, sociological, anthropological, politicaleconomics and management research.
The case study method is the systematic use of several research methods that are interactively combined and, together, offer a greater result than the sum of their indi-vidual methods and results. Based on further data analysis and conclusions that can be drawn, multilayered, concen-tric revisions and verifications of what has already been accomplished adds to this in particular.
The case study methodmm is methodology which is implemented in classroom and case study competitions where students solve business problems in Marketing Management field. This method was developed by teach-ers from the Marketing Management and Public Relations department from the Faculty of Organizational Sciences in 2002. This method was applied very successful in local, national, regional and international business case study competition until 2011 where students were participants and showed excellent competence to think different un-derstanding the real world situation.
Some world renowned universities that apply the case study method in the educational process define case studies as „a description of a real event, which includes a decision, chal-lenge, opportunity, problem or attitude with which a person or people in an organization are faced with“.
the case study in education
the case study method1.
30 31marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod history and concept
A case study allows the reader to be in the decision maker’s role in the very business process at hand.
The use of case studies in the educational process repre-sents an interactive method that is done directly through classes and the basic goal of which is the active participa-tion of students in class, which needs to be stimulated and guided by the teacher. This method of learning places the students in the center of attention and is based on analysis, recognition of problems and procurement of solutions, as well as giving recommendations for an organization or entrepreneur. In this manner, students are afforded the opportunity to face the real problems that managers would also experience in a practical environ-ment. The decisions to be made by students will most of-ten refer to multiple alternatives and it is thus expected of students to evaluate individually or in small teams which of these alternatives has priority based on detailed data analysis. Students, as decision makers, identify with man-agers who have high levels of responsibility and, through solving case studies, stimulate research and the crea-tive effort of students. Through simultaneous interactive discussions, students attain the self-confidence to make important decisions and learn to accept the differences in opinion they may have with other students.
For teachers and students who have only applied traditional methods to the learning process – lectures and classes in which the teacher has unilateral communication with students – the case study learning method represents a big change in their approach to learning and thinking. As a pre-requisite for the successful implementation of the case study learning method, it is important to have an understanding of the roles of the teacher and students in the process of prepar-ing for class, methods of communication during the class, and the activities that lead to case study solutions after class. Also, the case study method can be combined with other teaching methods, such as interactive classes, role playing, and computer simulation. The way a case study is presented and handled depends on how prepared and competent the teacher is in organizing a class that uses combined teaching methods, which can additionally influence bilateral com-munication, as a means of amplifying motivation and the active participation of students.
The participants in the application of the case study method are the students and teachers. Accordingly, the areas of knowledge and experience that both students and teachers possess differs and these have to be understood in order for the method to be adequately implemented. The area of expertise that relates to the application of case studies assumes that students will receive an explanation as to their role in the case study method, which includes preparing for the class, active studying during the class, and the active evaluation of knowledge after class in which the case study method was employed.
An adequate title for this area would be: Learning with case studies. This book will show results of students’ research, their opinions on the advantages and flaws of the case study method in the field of marketing management in the educational process, and on their participation in competitions where case studies are solved. Three phases of the learning process through case studies are particularly explained here: the indi-vidual preparation of students, working in small teams, and working in large teams.
teachers and student
32 33marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod history and concept
Table 1. The roles of lecturers and students in applyingthe case study methodmm
The areas that are relevant to lecturers include two spe-cific areas in case studies: Writing case studies and apply-ing case studies in teaching (Teaching with Case). In this manner, the opinions of teachers on the advantages and flaws of applying the case study method in the education-al process as well as in the organization of competitions in which case studies are solved are represented. Based on the afore mentioned areas for students and teachers (table 1), relevant areas for both teachers and students in using case studies in the classroom are represented.
The case study method was first employed, among insti-tutions of higher education, at Harvard Business School (HBS), which was founded in 1908. The case study meth-od combined with debate now represents 95% of examples of applying the method in the education process at HBS. This method has positioned this school as the leader in this field, as well as in MBA studies.
The first academic article, The Use of Case Studies in the Teaching of Marketing, which analyzes the application of the case study method in marketing, was published in the Journal of Marketing in 1949. According to Coolsen, the case study in marketing represents the act of defining, de-scribing and presenting current challenges and problems in the practice of marketing. The activities of analyzing and solving problems from the field of marketing with the case study method in the educational process represents practical preparation for students that will benefit their future employment.
Other foreign literature by the author Roberta Dolana shows case studies from marketing practice that were used in classes at HBS and have been structured as follows: marketing as a process, product strategy, distribution strat-egy, integrated marketing communications, and pricing strategy. Professors Rosenthalandi and Brown have written a book about case studies in strategic marketing in which 39 case studies were represented from organizations in dif-ferent industries that operate in foreign markets.
the history of the evolution of the case study methodmm in marketing 1.1.
case study methodmm teacher student
before class Writing/taking lead of case studies and teacher notes.
Preparation for class:
Plan curriculum and consult with other colleagues.
Reading case studies.Individual study time.
during class Leading discussions, listening and guiding student discussions.
Large group work.
Small group work
after class Evaluating the knowledge students presented in class, planning lectures, case studies,and teacher notes.
Summarizing results and knowledge.
Comparing individualanalysis with that of peers.
34 35marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod history and concept
The case study method in marketing has been applied, aside from several business schools and colleges, at the Chartered institute of Marketing. This Institute special-izes in education in marketing management in practice. Since 1991, the ECCH has been awarding the best written case study in Europe in the field of marketing, sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Marketing. The main criteria used for analysis and choosing the best case study is the frequency of the case study’s use in business schools and colleges throughout the world.
Aside from the above mentioned, case studies in marketing are often the subject of student competi-tions which showcase solutions to real world business problems, showing an affirmation in marketing as a scientific discipline that becomes more relevant every day in the practice of business. In order to promote the development of new case studies among university teachers in Southeastern Europe, Emerald has adver-tised a tender for the formation of collections of case studies from developing markets in 2011. This database contains case studies that include different areas of management, while marketing is regarded as a separate field. In addition, an organization for the development of management as a scientific discipline is CEEMAN, which organizes annual competitions in collabora-tion with Emerald for the best case study in the field of management in emerging markets in an attempt to influence the development of case study writing skills among university teachers and passing on experiences to colleagues from similar fields in the region. More information on these competitions will be covered in the remainder of this book. Applying the case study method in the educational process, in the field of marketing, allows students to find ways to analyze a problem, suggest possible solutions and to learn through a working experience with their peers. Through the case study learning process students will understand the priorities in solving main and side-
case studies and debates
line problems in marketing. After detailed analysis, alterna-tive solutions to the problem will be formed and in the end they will learn how to choose the best solution.
Prior experiences of teachers in the application of the case study method have led to the recommendation of ad-ditional materials that affect the more active participation of students in the classroom when case studies are being solved: research in terms of interviews with managers of local companies that are the subject of the case studies, lists of additional references, and video material. Additional material can also include reading other case studies that are relevant to the subject at hand. Aside from this, guest teach-ers can present a case study from their company, which represents a meaningful contribution to students in the sense of connecting theoretical concepts to the application of knowledge on a specific real world market. An interest-ing example would be a professor who wrote a case study about an airline company based on a second-hand infor-mation source. A manager working for the airline company in question was the father of the next-door neighbor of one of the professor’s students’, who was given the case study that students were analyzing in class. After receiving it, the airline manager contacted the school and held a lecture for students on the strategy that was implemented by the air-line and that did not quite coincide with the second-hand data included in the case study. The professor recorded the manager’s lecture so that, aside from the case study he had written, he would have a realistic version of a repre-sentative of the company in question. Creating this video allows other students to experience the manager’s lecture and gain knowledge of experience that will be priceless in future professional endeavors. Students are also stimulated to find material from their peers, websites, and industry magazines, in order to have information.
This form of preparation of class materials is also applicable to subjects that study problems in the fields of manage-ment, marketing, finance, production, human resources, and organization.
applying the method today
part 2. applying the case study methodmm (from the students’ point of view)
38 39marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
A class in which the student is passive and isn’t able to participate in the presentation of learning materials through active communication represents ex cathe-dra teaching. Teaching methods in which the student is more active in the educational process (teaching through discovery, teaching through problem solving, programmed teaching, problem teaching, mentored teaching, research teaching and collaborative teach-ing) add expression of curiosity in students, promote the development of motives for research, achievement and self-development, and raise the level of aspirations. Research that has been conducted demonstrate the rule that raising the quality of the educational process increases the possibility of achieving internal motiva-tion in students.
Employers’ experiences on this market have demonstrat-ed the need for people who possess knowledge and skills that are applicable in practice. Students who have par-ticipated at competitions in solving business case studies or academic research projects are more sought after than students who possess theoretical knowledge attained through passing exams. A student who showed excel-lent results in solving case studies was recently the only candidate on the Serbian market to pass the selection process for employment in an international company based in Moscow because he demonstrated tremendous abilities in identifying problems, analytic understanding, and critical validation of proposed solutions to a prob-lem. Another interesting example is the participation of six students from the Faculty of Organizational Science in Belgrade in the Ultra energy soft drink project of the Coca Cola Hellenic Company, who in fact participated in a real world marketing project based on previous practi-cal experience attained through working on case studies drawn from practice. Working with case studies afforded these students the opportunity to advance their skills in understanding the problems in placing a new energy drink brand on the Serbian market intended for the stu-dent population.
active learning with the case study methodmm2.
40 41marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
There are three phases in the process of active learning for students in the case study method:
• Individual preparation, • Working in small teams,• Working in large teams.
By the individual preparation of students, one assumes the determination of the student to engage himself before a class in which case studies are to be analyzed, while working in small and large teams, will unfold itself in class during the educational process.
The individual preparation of students represents the first phase in the learning process for students. Most often, students do not have the habit to prepare for class, which makes further phases of the in-class discussion more difficult. If the students understand the significance of adequate preparation for class, they will be able to actively participate in further analysis of case studies during class. There are also reading, analysis, and case study solution recommendations that can help students to more eas-ily prepare in working with case studies. Regarding the afore mentioned, recommendations for reading, analysis, and case study solving include three parts. Each part that pertains to the role of students and the active learning process includes steps in the form of practical advice for individual preparation, working in small teams, and work-ing in large teams.
Working in small teams includes students who aredivided into teams of three to six members in class.Together, they analyze a case study and give sugges-tions to alternative solutions.
Discussions in small teams are a bridge between indi-vidual preparation and working in large teams. In order for work in a small team to be most effective, it is recom-mended to include three to six students in a team. If there is a larger number of students in class, forming teams of up to ten students are possible.
The formation of team members is of great importance: it is necessary for members of the team to have varied sets of knowledge, skills, and experience. For example, choos-ing a team member who excels in qualitative analysis and a member who has exceptional knowledge of quantitative analysis is required. In relation to the defined discussion time (if the defined discussion time is 20 minutes and a team has five members) every member is required to present his or her opinion in four minutes.
Problems that may occur for students working in small teams include:
• Discussions that often result in lack of time to check and present solutions – lack of time;• Not all members of a team will participate in the dis cussion because they have not prepared or read the case study – lack of individual preparation;• Members of a team may come into conflict due to op posing opinions – interpersonal issues;• Members of a team will often not know each other and it may take time to build a sense of mutual trust – lack of trust among team members.
working in small teams
42 43marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
compare one’s own opinion and ideas to those of others in solving problems. Apex 1 explains the detailed steps of the three phases in the case study method for students.
Problems that may occur when working in large teams include:
• Students only repeat facts and data that are in the case study – ineffective learning by students;• Comments to the effect of „I agree„ with no additional argument – repetition of other students’ comments;• Hogging the conversation without regard to other team members – presenting questions to the teacher in regard to opinion and experience based on the case study in question that can be counterproductive to the discussion, monopolizing the discussion; • Students reading newspaper in class, texting on mobile phones – apathy to solving problems, as well;• Conflicts – disagreement with peers whose opinions differ.
The listed problems were a basis for researching the appli-cation of the case study method in marketing for students shown in Table 6.
Working in large teams assumes the critical viewing of solutions and presenting solutions that are a result of working in small teams. Picture 1 shows the process of ac-tive learning for students through the case study method.
Picture 1. Three phases of studying for students
Discussions in large teams represents the last phase in the learning process for students and is most often com-prised of five parts: introduction, verification of identified problems, analysis of the external and internal situation, defining alternatives and decisions, and implementing an activity plan for a case study. In this phase it is imperative that results from individual preparation, as well as from discussions in small teams, are developed further within the analysis and solving of the case study. Development is related to viewing the consistency and clear structure of solutions: defining alternatives that are realistic solu-tions to problems and explaining solutions to problems using clear quantitative and qualitative analysis. It is recommended that only those team members’ opinions with precise arguments should be presented, as is taking notes and raising hands when members wish to actively participate in a discussion. The most important skill in this phase is the skill to listen and the ability to critically
working in large teams
44 45marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
Quantitative Criteria Qualitative Criteria
Profit Competitive advantage
Expense Customer satisfaction
Return on investment Employee moral
Market share Corporate image
Capacity Ease of implementation
Delivery time Synergy
Cash flow Flexibility
Inventory turn Safety
Productivity Visual communication
Staff turnover Obsolescence
Quality Cultural sensitivity
Growth rate Motivation
Part I. Individual preparation: Reading case studies
Step 1. Reading the case studyStep 2. Reading the first and last paragraph again Step 3. Identifying the decision maker, location, and time period of the case study Step 4. Considering the subtitles of the case study (infor-mation in case studies is usually represented from general to specific) Step 5. Reviewing pictures and graphs in the case studyStep 6. Reading assignments and questions in the case study if they have been specifically assigned or recogniz-ing them in the introductory or conclusion paragraph, if they are not given in case study.
Part II. Working in small teams: Analysis and problem solving in case studies
Step 1. Defining problemsStep 2. Analyzing data from the case studyStep 3. Generating alternativesStep 4. Choosing criteria for making decisions.Step 5. Analysis and evaluation of alternativesStep 6. Selection of the best alternative based on decision making criteriaStep 7. Developing actions and plan implementation
Part III. Working in large teams
Step 1. Verification of solutions generated through work-ing in small teamsStep 2. Presenting the case study solutions of small teamsStep 3. Participation in an interactive discussion after each presentationStep 4. Class recap: Emphasis of main goals and key terms in the case study
directions for the learning processwith case studies for students
The problems of working in large teams:
• Students only repeat data and facts that are already given in case study – ineffective student participation;• The response „I agree„ without any arguments – just repeating the comments of other peers;• Having no respect for others and theirs different opin-ions – asking questions to professor about his thoughts on given topic, can be very contra productive for discus-sion- monopolization of the discussion;• Students reading newspapers during classes, sending text messages on mobiles… – indifferent for solving problems;• Conflicts – disagreements with colleagueswho do not have the same opinion1.
Aside from this, it is important for students to identify a list of most commonly used decision making crite-ria for solving case studies in the field of management that is expressed in Table 2. It includes quantitative and qualitative criteria.
Table 2. List of most commonly used decision making criteria
1 V. Damnjanović (2006),
Materijal sa treninga: „Trening za
asistente na programu PRISMA: Kako
držati vežbe i radionice: primena Me-
tode studije slučaja“, FON, Beograd.
46 47marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
Research on the application of the case study method was conducted with the goal of concluding the perception of students of the Faculty of Organizational Science of the University of Belgrade as to the advantages and flaws of the application of this method in the educational process. Students filled out questionnaires in April of 2009.
A total of 74 students from undergraduate and mas-ter studies programs participated. The least number of students were first year students at 2,7%, second year students made up 12,2 %, while 17,6% were third year students. The largest number of participants were fourth year students, making up 40,5% of the group, while master program students numbered 20 students, which represents 27 % of the sample.
The largest portion of those are majoring in management (77%); followed by information systems and technology (13,5%); quality control department (6,8%), while opera-tional management responded with 2,7%.
Research results show that 78,4% of students had the opportunity to work with the case study method during their regular studies at the Faculty of Organizational Science, while 24,3% of students had the opportunityto work with case studies during their master studies and 32,4% of those interviewed attended extracurricular classes. 24,3% of the interviewed students participated in local competitions for solving case studies, while 9,5% participated in national competitions and 6,8% competed in international competitions.
The analysis of criteria in the field of marketing manage-ment depends on the problems presented in the case study. The most common problems assigned cover the-matic entities in market segmentation, portfolio analysis, developing a new brand of products, marketing planning, forming an entry strategy in foreign market, introduc-tion of information systems into the sales sector, branding strategy, and formulating promotion mix.
Criteria used in competitions in marketing manage-ment case studies can also be classified as quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative criteria include: market percentage, return on marketing investment rate, new product sales percentage, profitability in relation to sales channels and market segments, and cost of bringing in new customers. Qualitative criteria in competitions most often include: customer satisfaction and loyalty, customer attitude and reaction, corporate socially responsible initia-tive, and product brand strength. In order for the application of the case study method to be better understood by students, the remainder of this book will show research that demonstrates the opinion of students on this method in the educational process.
results of research on the application of the case study method for students from the faculty of organizational science 2.1.
48 49marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod student’s point of view
The research particularly analyzed the matter related to the source of motivation of students in applying the case study method. Results show that the greatest motive of students for learning through the case study method is verification and receiving knowledge (39,2%). Subsequently, answers according to frequency were as follows: connecting with company representatives 20,3%; the possibility of student in-ternship opportunities 12,2%; the possibility of employment at the company which is the subject of the case study 12,2%, as well as connecting with other students 10,8%. Based on these results, we can conclude that the students are not well acquainted with the possibilities of connecting with the in-dustrial sector through participation in competitions, which will be covered in more detail in the latter part of this book.
A second research effort conducted for analyzing effective-ness of case study method was of qualitative character. Stu-dents and teachers were interviewed in May of 2009. The goal of this research related to collecting the opinions and perspectives of students enrolled in the Faculty of Organi-zational Science as to the advantages and flaws of applying the case study method in the Marketing department, as well as the perspective of students who had taken part in competitions where case studies are solved. The results of this research are summarized in Table 3.
Based on the results of the research and recommended directions, it can be concluded that there are advantages and issues in working with the case study method in marketing management for students. The investment of mutual (both students and teachers) efforts is required in order for certain disadvantages to be overcome and to ensure a better effect in learning – to enable students to understand problems that occur in practice as a basic element of case studies.
In order to evolve the interaction in working with students, particular attention was given to the research that explains the advantages and flaws in learning with the case study method for teachers, as well as the participation of students in competitions that solve case studies from the field of market-
networking and future opportunities at competitions
Lack of Learning with the Case Study Method PercentCase studies are written poorly – without needed information, tables, and pictures 79,7Case studies are badly presented 67,6Teachers are not prepared enough for work with students 63,5Teamwork results in interpersonal problems 58,1Problem evaluating individual involvement in a team 44,6Case study is too long – longer than 2 A4 formatted pages 44,6Case study themes are uninteresting 44,6Case studies are not adapted to the level of student knowledge 33,8Case studies studies don’t have just one result 28,4Processed examples are not from the Serbian market 17,6
Advantages of Learning with the Help of Case Studies
Students learning from one another – Exchange of opinions and ideas
Development of problem solving skills and analytical skills
Theoretical and practical knowledge are combined
Development of teamwork skills
Development of presentation skills
Studying is interesting and more useful than just studying theory
Students can implement new knowledge and skills
Development of time management skills
Employment is easier after completing studies
Development of agreement making skills
The advantages of learning with the case study method
The flaws of learning with the case study method(students):
The flaws of learning with the case study method
Lack of Learning with the Case Study Method Percent
Case studies are written poorly –
without needed information, tables, and pictures
Case studies are badly presented
Teachers are not prepared enough for work with students
Teamwork results in interpersonal problems
Problem evaluating individual involvement in a team
Case study is too long – longer than 2 A4 formatted pages
Case study themes are uninteresting
Case studies are not adapted to the level of student knowledge
Case studies studies don’t have just one result
Processed examples are not from the Serbian market
50 marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
part 3.Table 6. The case study method in marketing – students’ opinions
case study methods
preparation before class
Students can link problems with previous knowledge in areas more easily.
The result of student work is noticed in pre-vious classes, which significantly influences the motivation and desire of the student to further advance.
Goal setting skills are looked over during analysis of case studies.
Time management skills are practiced.
Time must be dedicated to studying in order to reach the correct result
Case study is not written correctly (contradictory facts in parts, lack of information, illogical information...)
Students may view case study work as only a way to gain points.
Case study topics are not all inter-esting to students and so students are not motivated during indi-vidual study time for the case study method.
Theory and practice are linked – easier un-derstanding of theory.
Development of creativity, teamwork, and analytical skills.Simulates realistic situations and gives op-portunity to study one’s own and another’s mistakes.
Students are willing to express their personal opinion, be creative, and give original sug-gestions and ideas.
Students get feedback from peers, teacher assistants, or professors, but not a grade, which allows for the person to express per-sonal observations and interests apart from textbook knowledge.
Work under pressure
Development of public presentation skills.
Team has many participants.
Case study work can be stressful.
Teachers poorly manage time.
Feedback from teachers is not always adequate.
It is less interesting solving obvious examples, which do not consist of more than one answer, and so you’re looking to apply a certain theoretical concept (i.e. Doing a SWOT analysis.)
If the case study isn’t familiar to students, if the case study is a foreign example, or from an earlier time period, results can be worse than when students solve case studies that are from the present time period.
after class Studying through examples is known to be more effective than studying by interpreting theories.
Checking one’s own knowledge and capa-bilities (it is possible to compare one’s own ideas with solutions from real companies that were actually implemented).
Fundamentals for participation in competi-tions for solving case studies about marketing.
Grading method sometimes isn’t clear enough to students.
Teachers can be subjective while grading solutions to case studies and individual student evaluations.
the concept and history of the case study methodmm
52 53marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
– teacher’s view
According to a research study analyzing higher educa-tion in Vietnam, teachers can develop skills when using combined interactive methods in the educational process: case studies, discussions in teams, as well as computer simulations. The company L’Oreal, for example, launched an electronic business online simulation L’Oreal e-Strat which represents a competition for students in the form of a software application that presents real world business problems in the market. Additionally, financial investments are suggested for different categories of cosmetic products, choice of distribution channels and promotion. In this way, students make business decisions, have a simulated budget, and only those teams who best defined a business strategy were able to enter the next level of competition. Based on this simulation, students were able to view when they were making correct or incorrect decisions, which will help them in their future development and careers.
The authors Lamb and Baker have emphasized the mul-tiple possibilities of applying the case study method in subjects from the field of marketing on different levels of education. The main problem in the teaching process was how teachers present and lead discussions with students in class. New preparation methods for learning with the case study method have been developed that accentu-ate the importance of how teachers prepare for the class – whether they are using relevant information from case studies that are in tune with marketing subjects.
Key skills that teachers should possess include: 1) Preparation of students for working with case studies;2) Preparation of the teacher for working in class;3) Defining the teacher’s class plan;4) Leading effective discussion in class.
Case studies: Writing and presenting
The case study method for the teacher is made up of two areas: writing case studies and manners of presenting case studies in class.
54 55marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
There are many characteristics to an adequately written case study. The structure of the study should be clear with an introductory paragraph in which the decision maker is identified, as well as the location and the time period that the case study covers.
The task of the teacher is to select an area that the case study will cover (marketing, finance, organizational changes, etc.). More often than not, authors of case studies will lose focus and there will be no apparent connection between the intro-ductory paragraph and the conclusion of the case study. It is important to pay attention to the logical and chronological structure of the case study and make sure the case study is grammatically correct and that the data is presented in the order in which it occurred. Relevant criteria for case studies might be identifying the problem or alternative solutions o a problem. Case study data that is given but cannot beanalyzed is useless.
A quality case study is one that contains people from real life because this attracts greater interest in students. Another important characteristic of a successful case study is its length, which at HBS has been defined as up to 30 pages. Students on the Serbian market prefer case studies of up to two or four pages.
The author Chapman explains the difference between short discussions of case studies as opposed to case studies pre-sented in HBS style. Short case studies are one page long and focus on a specific problem. HBS case studies require 50 to 100 minutes of discussion in class, while short case studies require 15 minutes. Case studies written for the CEEMAN and Emerald competition are 8 to 10 pages long without annexes, while case studies prepared for publication in the Emerald databases can be from 1000 to 12000 words long.
writing case studies
There are several ways to write a case study. Most common-ly, case studies are written using one of three ways, in which the criteria for choosing the way to write a case study is directly tied to the source of data to be used in the case study:
• Based on second-hand information sources (data retrieved from already published sources: It is necessary to include in detail all footnotes, graphs, pictures, and additional material presented within the case study). There is also the possibility of adopting case studies from databases where case studies are published, such as ECCH or Harvard Business Publishing.
• Based on a first-hand information source and with approv-al from the organization that the case study is being written about (it is then necessary to attach a confirmation from the CEO of the organization as a signed agreement that the data used in the case study may be published). This is the best way to prepare a case study for competition that students will solve in small teams.
• Based on consulting experience, which represents writ-ing a case study in which examples are created based on the practical experience of the author. Company names are usually altered.
What is of importance to teachers in writing a case study is how to write a quality case study that can be published in magazines, as well as be presented adequately in class.
56 57marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
methods of presenting case studies for teachers
It is important for a case study to be well structured, easy to read (more specifically – well composed subtitles, clear pictures and graphs) and to contain enough data for students to be able to identify and understand a problem. There are case studies that contain graphics, pictures, and additional material that cannot help students make a criti-cal analysis and understand problems in a useful way. I have had experiences in which teachers print case studies in color to emphasize their skills in creating diagrams in the new MS Office environment. What has been particu-larly interesting is the fact that when data is presented it can help students to do quantitative and qualitative analy-sis from which they can create arguments as to suggested solutions to problems in practice.
What students also like to see is when a case study contains elements of surprise, when it contains comparison, pro-vokes conflict of opinion, and promotes decision making. What is expected of the teacher is enthusiasm – to present the subject of the written case study in an accessible way.
Most students who were interviewed at the Faculty of Organizational Science, 73% of them, prefer to work with case studies written by their peers, while 23% of them would rather have teachers adopt a study from colleagues and other sources.
Aside from the mentioned criteria for an adequately written case study, a class plan and teaching notes are requirements for successful presentation of case studies in class.
The most difficult task a teacher has when writing a case study is to make assumptions as to how students will accept discussion in class. Teachers can adopt practical examples from other authors, but it is most important for the teacher to establish the role of the student in preparing for (‘the’ erased) class. In that sense, leading a discussion will be focused on the effects of the students’ learning.
There are several questions that come up for a teacher dur-ing preparation for class:
1. ABOUT THE STUDENTS: Who are the students? How can their prior knowledge be measured? What misconceptions might students have in connection to the material in question? How can a par-ticular subject be presented to them again if they have not understood it correctly? What can students learn in class? – Class goals.
2. MAIN CONCEPTS: What are the main concepts that should be presented during the educational process? Which concrete examples can the teacher use to explain and emphasize the key areas that are being demonstrated? Is there an example that students will best understand based on their prior experience?
3.CLASS STRUCTURE: Define the manner in which the teacher will define the main concepts being presented chronologically. The teacher must use a logical structure and time frame for presentation. What is the manner in which the teacher will present the students with the set structure? It is best to use an agenda at the beginning of the presentation.
58 59marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
4.CONNECTING KNOWLEDGE:What is the best way of connecting students’ previous knowledge with the new concepts and theories? Is it nec-essary for the teacher during preparation to support exist-ing knowledge or would it be better to present certain new concepts individually and separately from prior knowledge? When and how can the teacher help students connect infor-mation to the knowledge and skills they already possess?
5. SUBJECT PLAN: How do the exercises and lectures fit into the overall subject plan and what is their relation to other material also being studied during the semester?
6. CONTENT AND MANNER OF PRESENTATION: How will the prepared presentation be different in com-parison to previous classes: Power Point, clip chart, white board, chalk board, posters, video presentation? What parts will make up the presentation which will be intro-duced to the class?
It is very important for the person presenting to know how to handle equipment that is being used to present. Aside from this, eye contact with the audience is also significant, as well as use of clip chart diagrams in combination with a visual Power Point presentation. It is sometimes possible to explain an example through a poster presentation. What is most important when choosing tools for a presentation and in the case of electrical failure or other unforeseeable circumstances is that the presenter must remain in control of the situation, which includes the equipment and themselves during the presentation process, as well as being able to take hold of the situation and remain interesting and conceivable.
Recommendations as to the preparation for an effective class using the case study method also includes that the teacher should adjust lecture to his target group in order to focus on the subject at hand – also, the presenter cannot include all subjects in exercises and classes. A suggestion would be to create several notes that represent five to seven main concepts that the teacher plans on presenting in class.
Aside from what we have mentioned thus far, students must receive an explanation of the key terminology used in the case study. Presenting this content and presenting its con-nection to similar subject areas, according to the needs at the time, the teacher is bound to repeat the key terms whenever necessary. The presenter must also be aware of the target group’s expectations – paying attention to their reactions and leading the discussion in tune with that. To adequately prepare for a class in which case studies are presented, the teacher must define an executive plan for the class and mandatory teaching notes in order to establish and main-tain continuity during class.
The tasks of the teacher in preparation and realization of the case study method are:• Before class: Defining class goals, choosing adequate study materials, choosing a starting point for discussion, and in the end analyzing case study data before the discussion;• During class: Leading the discussion in that way to always have focus on the central concept, managing students’ con-tribution, managing the presentation, managing conflicts on the main concept, managing the clip chart, blackboard, managing A/V equipment, summing up the discussion, and emphasizing the connection between some elements in the case study.
For the teacher to be able to realize all of the listed tasks, it is necessary for them to possess listening skills, both verbal and nonverbal communication, and to know how to moti-vate students in a discussion.
60 61marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
teaching notes and teaching plan
Teaching notes can help teachers to facilitate presenta-tion of case studies in class. They represent a kind of guide in the application of the case study.
The basic elements of teaching notes are:
• Case study title: where the case study name is emphasized;• Description of case study: a short description of the particular case study;• Related problems: Main decisions to be made by the decision maker in the case study;• Main problems of the case study: Reasons for the teacher to apply this case study in the learning process;• Study goals: Defines the study goals to be accomplished in class. Several study goals can be defined. There is also the option of defining priorities within the study goals – primary as the main goal and secondary as side goals;• Requirements of students in studying the case study: Questions that the teacher will focus on during discus-sion. These questions must be prepared with answers so that feedback can be given to students;• Additional materials for the case study (TV commer-cials, photos, articles, video material, guest lecturers). A recommended reading list is also a good addition. There will always be students in any given class who have an interest in a particular subject that is being presented in the case study. It is important to offer additional sources: books, articles, and websites.
teaching plan for case studies
A teaching plan in the case study method is a basic ele-ment of the teaching notes. The teaching plan, according to Ivey School of Business in Canada is shown in Annex 2.
The above represented teaching plan is a short overview of preparation for teachers for a specific class in which case studies will be presented.
Case study title:Subject: Date: Time: Work plan: Students: List of participants1.2.3.
1. Introduction 2. Next/previous class 3. Comments, questions 4. Additional reading 5. Case study presentation 6. Teaching materials 7. Defining assignments/questions 1. or 2. or 3. or Total time
Teaching plan for case studies (Richard Ivey School of Business)
62 63marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod teacher’s point of view
results of research on the application of the case study method among teachers at the faculty of organizational science
Table 7 shows a modified form of that plan for presenting case studies that can help students and teachers analyze and solve case studies. The teaching plan is presented through the ten case studies included in this book.
Table 7. Teaching plan for presenting case studies
This plan is, based on the author’s own experience, easier to follow and apply with the case study method than the plan recommended by our Canadian counterparts.
The advantages in this case are: the planned time for ex-ecuting the class is shown, subjects from practical examples are presented to students, new concepts will be discussed in class, study goals, methods, techniques and models that can be used in analysis and solving case studies are also present-ed. As a result, students will adopt key knowledge and skills after the presentation. Additionally, the tasks for both stu-dents and teachers are defined, as well as the way students will be graded for contributing during the case study.
In the previous part of this book, we explained the opinion of students in regard to the application of the case study method in marketing. We should also analyze the advan-tages and flaws as seen by teachers in order to evolve the educational process.
Results in connection to the opinions of teachers as to the method in the field of marketing management were collect-ed during research and classified under three groups based on the dimensions of presenting in class and the teacher’s role: before class, during class, and after class – Table 8.
Based on the results of the research shown here, we can conclude that the advantages of applying the case study method should be promoted among colleagues that do not use this method in the educational process, as well as recognize the need to overcome flaws in working with the method. The best way to improve teaching skills when working with the case study method is to learn from col-leagues, in particular those who have more experience in working with case studies.
Lecture Time: 2 lectures * 45 minutes = 90 minutes
Subject: Defining subjects which will be presented as case studies
Goal: To force students apply knowl-edge from the subject XY
Methods, techniques, and models:
Defining theoretical concepts that can be used during class
Key knowledge and skills: Teamwork, presentation skills, and time management
Tasks and testing methods: Defining tasks for students and teachersEvaluation methods for stu-dents and teachers
64 marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
part 4.case study method
preparation/ before class
Class is easier to plan.
Case studies allow for focus on different fields of marketing.
Theory and practice are connected.
Teaching can be improved with preparation for class.
The teacher decides the theme of the case study and leads discussions.
Notes for teachers do not exist for most case studies from the national market.
Case studies are mostly from inter-national markets – other teachers wrote them.
Teachers don’t have enough time and resources to provide all addi-tional information for case studies.
Students are not accustomed to preparing for class.
discussions / during class
Theoretical concepts are easier to discuss.
Control of distribution of information is dependent on the teacher.
Class is more interesting.
Creativity of students and teachers is en-couraged.
Presentation and communication skills are developed.
Student involvement is greater.
Transfer of knowledge is better.
Work in large groups is more dif-ficult – it is impossible to involve all students in the team.
Student motivation is not always at the same level for this type of work if case study tasks are in the same form.
Students don’t have enough knowledge to discuss the prob-lem – They don’t have enough arguments to explain a solution to a problem.
Students have problems with time management skills.
after class Studying process is easier to control.
Case study methods don’t have one solution – generation of solutions is an advantage.
Teachers get to know students better.
Excellent method for testing teachers.
Teachers connect with company representa-tives that are the source of case studies.
Evaluation and grading of students as individuals is difficult.
Subjectivity of feedback from teachers: there is a possibility that the teacher offends students’ different opinions that are not rel-evant for the case solutions.
Not all students interpret the teacher’s criticism as constructive criticism.
Table 8. The case study method – teachers’ opinions
organizing competitions in marketing management– through case studies
66 67marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod organizing competitions in marketing management –through case studies
organizing competitions in marketing managementcase studies
A special way of applying the case study method is through competitions in which students solve casestudies from the field of marketing.
Prerequisites for organizing competitions include that the teacher is prepared and that the student is involved in the case study method. In addition to regular class-es, extra lectures (like workshops and group meetings) should be scheduled.
Resources that are necessary for organizing competi-tions involving case studies include a time and date for the competition, competitors, infrastructure (venue, equipment), and financial resources for funding the competition (awards for competitors, payment for those who write the case studies, budget for advertising, and food and drinks).
Types of Competition At FON there are two basic types of case study competi-tion organizations for students:1. Competing – where everyone is ranked and the top three are announced;2. Case Study Show – where solutions to problems from the real world are shown and there are no winners.
Levels of competition also differ in relation to the location of the participants: local, national, regional, and interna-tional competitions for case study competitions.
„Solving case studies at competitions on the local level allows students to apply theoretical knowledge to solve real-world marketing problems. Aside from that, solving case studies has great influence on improving commu-nications skills, teamwork, and exchanging knowledge.
68 69marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod organizing competitions in marketing management –through case studies
Case studies expose interesting sides of marketing to students,“ said Ana Ivanović, the best student speaker at the fourth local marketing competition at FON in 2011.
Competitors who solve case studies from marketing management are faculties (organizers and authors of case studies), organizations from trade and industry like sponsors who represent the source of themes for case studies, competitors, jury, media, student organizations, and volunteers.
The jury consists of people who are from organizations that produce case studies – top management or teach-er assistants or professors who wrote case studies. The composition of the jury is very important: It is neces-sary that the number of jurists is odd. The jurists need to be familiar with the case study before presentations and they need to have competence in the area that the case study is about. In international competitions on the global level the jury only consists of the members of the top management companies that decide the winning teams.
There are different criteria and levels of significance (panderers) that are taken in consideration when grad-ing student solutions at case study competitions where marketing problems are solved. At international competi-tions, the following aspects are graded: case study analy-sis, presentation of solutions, participants’ responses to questions from the jury, and teamwork performance.
Balkan Competition Case Challenges – on the local level organized by WUS Austria and includes thefollowing criteria:
• Comprehension of case study problems (16,7%);• Reality of suggested solution (16,7%);• Structure and quality of presentation and solution of case study (33,33%);• Knowledge and responses to questions from jury (33,33%).
Criteria for grading students’ solutions and choosing winners (the best team according to the members of the jury) at competitions always include teamwork, presenta-tion method, presentation of argument, and the rationali-ty of the solution based on the detailed problem analyses.
The most important quality that should be considered before selecting the members of the jury should be their competence and motivation to provide adequate feed-back to students so that they can understand what mis-takes they made and what areas they need to improve for their future work.
70 71marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod organizing competitions in marketing management –through case studies
To organize a competition with case studies with sub-jects from marketing it is important that there is col-laboration between companies, teachers, and students who are active participants in competitions. The roles of participants are:
• Companies: They have three roles in competitions: first, as a sponsor, to provide financial funding. Second, to provide neces-sary information for case studies, and to participate in the jury that grades students’ solutions;
• Teachers: To prepare students, to communicate and make agree-ments with representatives of companies, to write case studies, to communicate with students, to prepare mate-rials for competitions, to organize events, and to partici-pate in the jury that grades students’ solutions;
• Students: To prepare with teachers, to register for competitions, to solve case study problems in teams, to present solutions, and to evaluate their knowledge after competing.
Picture 2. Framework for competing with case studies: subject is marketing –participants: teachers, students, and companies.
Job for students
Theory and practice
The complete role of teachers in the process of organizing competitions for case studies in the subject of marketing is show in picture 2. In relation to students and company representatives, it is necessary that faculty and trade and industry organizations consider integrating theory and real world examples: faculty – students – companies. Teachers have the responsibility to prepare students for case study competitions in the field of marketing.
Teachers also have the obligation to communicate with representatives of companies to provide case studies that will be solved at competitions. Companies expect solu-tions from students that are applicable to the real world. Based on research results, companies have the ability to recruit and select the best students and to offer them a job.
role of participants at competitions where case studies are solved4.1
72 73marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod organizing competitions in marketing management –through case studies
Company representatives have a significant role in or-ganizing case study competitions. Company representa-tives who participated in the jury at the competitions that involve solving case studies in the subject of marketing are giving their opinion about the advantages and disad-vantages of case studies. Research results show that support for this type of com-petition is being given by international companies with 51 to 500 employees that are located in Serbia. They are sponsors of competitions and sources of information for case studies. All company representatives work on the top level of management and they participate like mem-bers of the jury at competitions involving the subject of marketing from 2006 to 2010 at the local, national, and international level.
When the importance of student acquisition skills in applying the case study method is analyzed, company representatives mostly evaluate students’ creative solving skills and presentation skills; while connecting theories and real-world problems, teamwork skills and applied knowledge are graded as if they are very important. Collaboration between companies, higher education institutions, and company representatives consider time management very important.
Advantages that companies receive as a member of the case study competition in the area of marketing include:
• Opportunity of employing students as the most impor-tant company resource;
• Company representatives consider it very important to connect with teachers and implement solutions in the real world;
• Sponsorship of educational competitions, connecting with students, creating a database of student biographies, and opportunity to participate in student internships: company representatives consider it a very important part of business.
Answers from examinees offer solutions to marketing problems for companies involved in the case competi-tions for different levels of competition: national com-petitions, regional competitions: SEE region, including international competitions at the Europe level. Teachers who organize case study competitions also identified advantages and problems they encountered.
research results of company representatives on the serbian market
subtitle: advantages for companies
74 75marketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod organizing competitions in marketing management –through case studies
cover different areas of marketing management and rely on basic theoretical concepts and approaches that assist in understanding the application of theory in practice. These case studies analyze the Serbian market, consumer segmentation, brand positioning, and strategic brand-ing and sponsorships, defining direct communication and sales strategies, social media and online marketing strategies, building partner sales models, corporate brand communication strategies, and so forth.
Table 9. Advantages and problems of organizing competitions involving case studies in the area of marketing
Faculty Students Company
• Improving educational image • Networking with other faculties who also work with case study method• Improving collaboration with companies • Better teaching process – with valuable quality standard for students• Better integration between teaching staff and students• Improving teacher’s knowledge
• Evaluation of knowledge• Networking with company’s representatives• Internship• Employment• Networking with other students• Development of analytical and critical thinking skills• Awards
• Employment: Selection and recruiting of the best students• Many different solutions• Applying the solutions in practice• Creative approach to solu-tions• Networking with students• Networking with faculty (headhunting)• Company promotion
• Focus on only academic way of thinking –theoretical approach• Lack of time• Lack of practical knowledge • Lack of management support• Lack of money• Ex katedra teaching style
• Focus only on knowledge covered by the exam• Unmotivated students – don’t want to have additional classes• Lack of time• Lack of understanding ben-efits for them using case study competition
• Uncertainty: What can students really provide in the term of real practice solutions?• Providing money for compe-tition is not seen as an invest-ment but as costs• Company managers are usu-ally afraid to share real data• Lack of experience for case study competition
Advantages and problems are summarized further in this book in table 9, which shows advice for improving this type of work.
According to research, the framework for organizing case study competitions in marketing and suggestions for overcoming actual problems is given to students, teaching staff, and company representatives.
Results that are obtained through this method are necessary to convince the faculty board of directors that this method provides long-term results. This is especially significant because the faculty board of directors is responsible for the teacher’s motivation, while the teacher is responsible for the students’ motivation.Problems that exist with the company representative, who needs to financially and professionally support competition organiza-tions, can be overcome with company recommendations and positive impressions from previous competitions at which case studies were solved.
This book presents ten case studies, of which eight are from the Serbian market:
1. Henkel Serbia;2. Adria Media Serbia;3. Hyundai Serbia;4. Frikom;5. touché solutions;6. Svettenisa.net;7. Boki Company;8. smart Brand.
Two examples are presented from foreign markets:
• Ponto e Marketing 440v from Brazil• Sponsorship Insight Group from the United States of America.Nine of the included case studies were approved for pub-lication by the companies in question, while the tenth was written based on second-hand sources that have been mentioned in the bibliography. These examples
adventages and problemsof participants atcase study competitions
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part 5. examplesof case
The case studies that are presented in this practicum cover three key areas of mar-keting in practice: • Brand Management;• Communications Management;• Sales Management
Key focus in the field of brand management is on the building of corporate brand on the example of the company Henkel Serbia, brand positioning of products on the domestic market, examples for the prod-ucts of Sensa and Smart cars, as well as the Hyundai company example which fo-cuses on the analysis of expansion strate-gies and extensions of the Hyundai brand aimed at increasing consumer loyalty.
The examples selected in the field ofcommunications management present the online marketing performance of the tennis portal svettenisa.net, sponsorship as a way of carrying out marketing com-munications strategies in football, as well as the role of social networks in the im-proved positioning of the company SIG.
The field of sales management analyzes the small companies Boki and Touché solutions, which have specific problems in the traditional approach to sales of leather goods and high technologies. Also presented is the example of the large company Frikom, as well as its marketing and sales communication activities at the point of sale, since marketing budgets of companies on the Serbian market are becoming increasingly directed towards BTL activities2.
2 Popesku, M., Damnjanovic V.and Novcic, B, (2010),Marketing outsourcing and global crisis: Serbian perspective. 1st EMAC Regional Conference – ‘Marketing Theory Challenges in Emerging Mar-kets – MTC 4’ in Budapest, Hungary, 24-25 September 2010
78 79case study overview
case study 1
The company Henkel has been investing for years into development of its corporate brand, because it represents a vital strategic element of corporate management,especially when it comes to companies that conduct business worldwide.
The goal of Jelena Sarenac, corporate communications manager for Henkel in Serbia, is to continue developing the company’s strategy for corporate brand communications on the Serbian mar-ket during the upcoming year 2010. What strategy lies behind the creation of the Henkel corporate brand? What defines Henkel’s corporate brand com-munications strategy, and what are the differences within the global and local markets? What are the communication standards that are followed everywhere?
The history of the company Henkel begins far back in 1876 when Fritz Henkel founded a factory for the production of laundry de-tergents. Today, Henkel represents one of the most important company groups in the world, with a wide range of products. The company’s product range includes deter-gents and household chemical products, cos-metics and body care products, construction adhesives, as well as adhesives for industrial and manufacturing systems. The Henkel
Group, with headquarters in Düsseldorf, Germany, employs over 52,000 employees worldwide, with a presence on 125 markets. Henkel in Serbia operates within the group Henkel Central and Eastern Europe (Henkel CEE), with headquarters in Vienna.
HENKEL IN SERBIA
The company Henkel arrived onto the Ser-bian market in 2002 by purchasing 70% of shares of the company Merima from Kruse-vac. Through purchases of minority shares and recapitalization, it has obtained 93.48% of ownership in Merima up to this day. The takeover of the Serbian detergent factory Merima represented an important step in the expansion of the company Henkel.
Several reasons were decisive in the arrival of Henkel to Serbia: tradition, quality and reputation of the Merima factory, the strength of Merima’s domestic brands, the potential of the domestic market, as well as the possibility to supply products from Serbia to the entire South Eastern European region.Henkel made a commitment through a privatization contract to invest 43.6 mil-lion euro into Merima over a period of five years, while the total investments so far have exceeded the given figure and have already reached an amount of 50 million euro.
Henkel Serbia – building a corporate brand throughcorporate communicationssegment a)
HENKEL CORPORATE BRAND
The need for achieving greater recogni-tion occurred as a result of the expansion of Henkel’s activities abroad, especially in the North American market, as well as in emerging markets such as East-ern Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia and Latin America. Seven years ago (2003), in order to intensify these activities, the Management Board of Henkel determined a strategic goal to develop a distinctive corporate identity, and use it as a basis for the development of a corporate brand that would motivate 53,000 employees, and contribute to gaining the trust of millions of consumers and clients worldwide. The creation and presentation of the corporate brand has consequently become an in-novation of strategic importance.
Since 2002, the company Henkel has been equally present on all continents with the oval corporate logo, and the slogan A Brand like a Friend. Together, these two components form an umbrella brand that refers to the entire company, and all of its services and products. At the same time, it represents a significant tendency of Henkel to make people’s lives easier, better and more beautiful, through the help of its strong brands and technologies. Simply put, Henkel wishes to be a friend at the service of all of its customers. Such an aspiration is unusual in the business world, governed by fierce competition. How can a company, as a complex entity, be a friend?
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Corporate design refers to the visual ap-pearance of the company. Apart from this, an important element in the development of Henkel’s corporate brand is corporate culture as well, which includes: leader-ship style, code of conduct, value system and corporate spirit. It is also necessary to analyze the way in which the company and corporate brand are perceived by the external public. This represents thecompany’s corporate image.
In order to achieve internal and external strengthening of the brand, it was neces-sary to create a uniform global image of the company and its corporate design. Various signs and symbols were used throughout decades, which resulted in a large number of different looks of the Henkel Oval logo, which often consistedof different colors and font sizes.
Henkel’s consistently developed red, oval-shaped logo first appeared as a decora-tive element on the packaging of Persil in the year 1912. The name Henkel became included in the oval logo in the year 1920. This, if we may say so, represented the „birth“ of the corporate logo, the most important symbol of the company. Ty-pographically, the name Henkel had not been defined up until the year 1959, when it received a professional design. The logo was revised on several occasions after longer periods of time, and its moderniza-tion was carried out with care.
Today, Henkel has a uniform appearance across all world markets, from business cards to its Internet portal. The repeti-
GLOBAL CORPORATE BRAND COMMU-NICATIONS STRATEGY
The positioning of Henkel under the slogan A Brand like a Friend proved to be successful, and an example of this is the company’s posi-tive development since the moment it associ-ated itself to that slogan. This fact is supported by detailed economic analyses as well.The deciding factor was the creation of a solid foundation within the company itself. This was achieved through the crea-tion of a Vision (Henkel is a leader with brands and technologies that make peo-ple’s lives easier, better and more beautiful) and ten Values of the company Henkel:• We are customer driven;• We develop superior brands and technologies;• We aspire to excellence in quality;• We strive for innovation;• We embrace change;• We are successful because of our people;• We are committed to shareholder value;• We are dedicated to sustainability and corporate social responsibility;• We communicate openly and actively;• We preserve the tradition of an open family company.The Henkel corporate brand was built with the help of a precisely defined corporate identity that combines and represents the essential characteristics of the company, what it represents and how it conducts business, as well as the directions of its development strategies. Corporate design is a segment of the corporate identity.
tion and constant use of visual identity elements represent a major role in the building of corporate identity. In addi-tion to internal use, corporate brand has a strategic importance for external commu-nication as well. The corporate brand has contributed to the presence of Henkel in international media, as well as in financial markets and markets for employee recruit-ment. In recent years, Henkel has become increasingly attractive to investors, as well as skilled experts and managers. In ad-dition, numerous studies show that the corporate value of the company Henkel has increased significantly in recent years. This is viewed as the result of intensiveefforts to build the company’s identity,as well as the company as a brand3.
PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES OF THE HENKEL COMPANY
The company Henkel invests into devel-opment of its corporate brand through public relations activities. On the global stage, Henkel sponsors a hockey team from Düsseldorf called the Metro Stars, which is a member of the German national ice hockey league. This club personifies the values that Henkel strives for: effort, perseverance, fair play, anda desire to succeed.The social engagement of the company can be seen through activities related to corporate social responsibility and the Henkel Smile program. Through the MIT Initiative (MIT = Make an Impact on To-morrow), Henkel supports voluntary social engagement of its employees and retirees
3BBDO Consulting, Henkel Life,5 years of the slogan „A Brand like a Friend“,http://www.henkel.co.kr/krk/con-tent_data/78132 _HL5yoABlaF.pdf, data from 05.06.2008.
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on projects which they propose or super-vise themselves. Employees or retirees at Henkel have the role of team leader on projects which are related to the commu-nity or children, and which are designed to contribute to the general welfare of all. Henkel’s support for a project comes in the form of financial aid, goods, cash dona-tions, or through paid leave.
The Henkel Smile program puts emphasis on helping others be able to help them-selves, and the intention is to achieve per-manent improvement of the situation of those receiving the help, within their social environment. Henkel’s employees and retirees play a key role in the following: as the driving force they are at the very heart of all Henkel Smile projects – from the se-lection, planning and organization, to the phase of implementation. Particular atten-tion is dedicated to supporting long-term partnerships between Henkel and other brands on the one hand, and social welfare organizations on the other, with an aim of working together in combating difficulties and overcoming specific crisis situations.
Henkel Smile is based on new forms of cooperation between the involved stake-holders: between the employees and the company, social institutions and powerful Henkel brands, between innovative tech-nologies and industry, or other sponsor-ship partners and socially responsible business activities at Henkel’s locations around the world.
The project sponsored through the Henkel Smile program represents gatherings between
the work of the Small Big People organiza-tion, as well as their home for people with disabilities at the lodgings of the St. Petka Monastery near Paracin.
Henkel Central Eastern Europe (Henkel CEE), a part of the Henkel Group based in Vienna, held its seventh annual competi-tion for the Henkel Art Award, intended for artists from Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The Henkel Art Award in 2007 was awarded in the category „Artistic draw-ing“, and the winner received a cash prize.
Moreover, the company Henkel has in co-operation with the organization KulturKon-takt from Austria, also chosen a work from the works of participants of the Artists-in-Residence program of this organization, whose author was awarded the Young Art-ist’s Prize, a prize for a young and talented artist from Eastern Europe, which included a cash prize. A prize was also awarded to the most promising young Austrian artist, titled the Young Austrian Artist’s Prize. The Henkel Art Award Exhibition was held in Belgrade at the „Heritage House“ Gallery, from the 21st to the 31st of July, 2007.The event was attended by:
• 57 artists selected by a jury,• 5 rooms in the gallery were used for exhibitions of the works,• 300 participants (artists, guests, VIPs),• 29 representatives of the local media (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, web portals),• 5 finalists from Serbia were chosen to go to Vienna.
Mongolian and Korean children, which allow them to get better acquainted. This includes regular competitive football tournaments played in t-shirts with the Henkel logo.
Through the independent, charitable association Henkel Friendship Initia-tive e.V. (HFI), emergency aid is provided worldwide to people in need, especially those who have been affected by a crisis or disaster. Since 2003, the Independent Committee of Henkel Friendship Initiative (HFI) has been made up of the employees and retirees who volunteer within it.
Henkel’s corporate and product brand alli-ances operating under the Social Partner-ship umbrella provide donations for the support of local communities and social de-velopment work. They also cooperate with partners in the implementation of a great number of joint projects and initiatives.
CORPORATE BRAND COMMUNICA-TIONS STRATEGY IN SERBIA –THE HENKEL ART AWARD
The corporate brand communications strategy in Serbia consists of a number of activities: media relations, organization of tradeshow presentations, sponsorships, donations, as well as activities related to corporate social responsibility. Henkel Ser-bia has donated a medical vehicle to the Health Center Krusevac. Assistance has been provided to the Krusevac Theatre, as well as the basketball club Progress (Nap-redak). The HENKEL SMILE project helps
In this way, the company Henkel Serbia uses active participation in events to influ-ence the development of its corporate brand on the local market as well. Aware-ness of the Henkel corporate brand in the region of Central and Eastern Europe is the most expressed in Serbia, see Figure 1.5.
With the slogan A Brand like a Friend and a clearly defined corporate identity, Henkel has adopted a new strategy to make its global image even better and stronger, so that the company would be perceived as one entity: Henkel as a corporate brand.
Corporate branding requires numerous public relation and marketing activities. Henkel Serbia, led by Jelena Sarenac, is preparing a corporate communications plan with a desire to improve its perfor-mance on the Serbian market in the year 2010. In addition to the realized activities, the plan needs to include creative andinnovative ways of communication.
Figure 1.1. Portfolio of the company Henkel
Figure 1.4. Exhibition: Henkel Art Award in Belgrade
Figure 1.5. Henkel Serbia: Recognitionof the manufac-turer Henkel in Eastern and Central Europe 2008.
(Source: Gfk marktforschung Globo bus)
Figure 1.2. Development of the Henkel corporate brand
Figure 1.3. Corporate design
Laundry &Home Care
Quality with Brands & Technologies
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Subjects: Brand management, Public relations, Marketing
Topics: Corporate branding, Corporate communications, Integrated marketingcommunications, Organization of special events
Goals: Understanding the process of development of a corporate brand throughapplication of communications strategies at the global and local levelDetermining the difference between the terms: Corporate identity, Corporate culture, Corporate image, Corporate reputation, Corporate brand
Methods/ techniques/ Models
Gap analysis, Integrated marketing communications development model(Duncan, 2006.), Model for management of corporate reputation and image(Gray, Balmer, 1998.)
Key knowledge and skills:
Building of corporate brand through a special event: The Henkel Art Award Exhibition, The process of integrated marketing communications in the function of brand building, skills for recognizing problems in corporate brand development,internal and external communication skills
Assignments: Student assignment: Analyze the corporate brand building activities of the company Henkel Serbia Ltd.Define a corporate communications plan with an aim to improve the company’s performance on the Serbian market in the year 2010Lecturer assignment:Explain the relationship between corporate communications directed towards internal target publics (the employees) and external publicsPresent the Henkel Art Award Exhibition special event as a brand building activity of the Henkel Serbia Ltd. corporate brand in Serbia
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for class discussions. The author has altered certain information in order to protect busi-ness data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to Henkel Serbia Ltd. and Jelena Sarenac for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic.
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case study 2
Management of the company Adria Media Serbia (AMS) is in a dilemma on how to further develop the new Sensa magazine brand on the women’s maga-zines market in Serbia, which it launched onto the market in early 2008. Prior to its launch, detailed market research was carried out on potential customers and competition. It is very important to per-form adequate market segmentation of the readers and advertisers for the new Sensa brand, through clear profile de-scriptions of the target groups and their expectations. It is also important to de-sign communication activities towards the Sensa magazine’s target group.
THE AMS COMPANY
Eight major publishing houses exist in Serbia today (Novosti, Politika, Blic, Press, Color Press, Adria Media Serbia, Europa Press and Attica Media). The market is still in development, and 3 daily newspapers and 25 new magazines were launched in 2007 alone.
Adria Media Serbia Ltd. was founded in 2006 through a merger of media houses Gruner und Jahr AG & CO. and Sanoma Magazines International B. V.Adria Media Serbia is currently one of the largest publishing houses in Serbia, as well as a leader when it comes to sales of adver-
tising space [see Figure 2.1]. Income from the sale of advertising space represents a significant part of the company’s revenue.
AMS publishes magazines which offer information, inspire readers, and con-tribute to the quality of their lives. The current portfolio consists of 13 well known magazines – Elle, Cosmopolitan, National Geographic, Men’s Health, Gala Style, Story, Lisa, Sensa, My home (Moj stan), Life with flowers (Zivot sa cvecem), My Beautiful Garden (Moja Lepa Basta), Culinary Secrets (Kulinarske tajne), and Burda Moden. As for the readers of AMS publications, in com-parison to the average citizen of Serbia they are more educated, have a higher income and spend money gladly. They simply cannot resist buying magazines. Shopping represents a real pleasure to them, they are loyal to quality brands, but they like to try new ones as well. They are well informed and often asked for advice by others, so in addition to their own purchase decisions, they also have a direct impact on the pur-chase decisions of people in their environ-ment. The following is a brief portfolio overview of the publishing house Adria Media Serbia. [Source: TGI Serbia, Period: May – September 2007, Target group: all respondents between 15 and 69 years of age who read AMS publications]
Sensa is the first Serbian monthly maga-zine dedicated to a happier life and inner beauty. A healthy lifestyle is a matter of choice, and Sensa is the best inspiration.
Adria Media Serbia
Whether it is healthy habits, psychology, beauty, travel or healthy food, Sensa is always positive and celebrates the beauty of life.
Gala Style is a glossy lifestyle monthly magazine dedicated to the urban, working woman with an expressed personal style. Gala Style deals more with her lifestyle, and the luxury that makes everyday life more pleasant, comfortable and beauti-ful. Informed, relaxing and fun, Gala Style deals with current issues in culture, as well as fashion, beauty, celebrities, interiors, travel, and good restaurants.
National Geographic Serbia is the popular science magazine with the highest circu-lation in the world, which has brought its nearly two centuries old tradition and quality to Serbia. With its main aim of improving reader knowledge about the world we live in, National Geographic Serbia offers great photos and interesting stories from around the world, but from Serbia as well, which deal with the plant and animal world, his-tory, archeology, culture and science.
ELLE is the best selling fashion magazine in the world, dedicated to sexy, stylish & spirited women, urban and educated, who besides their own style and beauty, find the aesthetics of everyday life as well as cultural events to be highly important. ELLE wins its audience through the manner in which it treats fashion, style and beauty, through knowledge of the spirit of the times.
Men’s Health deals with all aspects of daily life of the modern man. It is a magazine for men who value quality in all fields of
segment a) brandmanagement
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life. The first men’s lifestyle magazine in Serbia, with highest circulation, brings every month to its readers the latest infor-mation on health, fitness, nutrition, sex, fashion, travel, technology, money...
Story allows its readers to get acquainted with the famous. Thanks to its honest and open approach, a close cooperation with celebrities and the most exclusive content that cannot be found elsewhere, Story is becoming increasingly read by the week! It reports on the latest developments, trends and events, and brings intimate confes-sions from the private lives of celebrities.
Lisa is a magazine that features a new, modern look, which together with the ever smiling girl on the cover makes Lisa unique. The articles are interesting and practical, easy to read, and full of useful information. It is a magazine that transfers positive energy to its readers. Interesting stories about the lives of people in Serbia, topics from daily life, health, nutrition, chil-dren, fashion, decor, psychology and travel – are all packed into a single whole.My home is the highest circulation month-ly magazine in Serbia that deals with the culture of living. My home presents topics that are related to all aspects of our living environment, in a popular and entertain-ing way. It is a magazine that every month brings the latest trends in modern and inte-rior design, with a pronounced orientation towards practical advice. My beautiful garden is the largest European magazine on gardening. Every month, it takes readers into the world of interior and
women’s magazines are shown in Figures 2.2 and 2.3. In 2008, the market witnessed the appearance of Sensa, a magazine that is unique on the market and opens up an entirely new category – „mind style“ magazine. The opening of this segment was inspired by growing global move-ments – a healthy lifestyle and topics such as beauty, health and psychology, are the fastest growing global trends in magazine publishing. The most popular headlines at the moment are those such as Healthy Living, Health & Fitness, Psychology, Body + Soul, Emotion, Healthy... The goal of these magazines is to offer something extra and inspire readers to work on their own quality of life, healthy habits, sincere emotions, and search for a deeper mean-ing of the world that surrounds them.
The launch of the magazine Sensa was preceded by quantitative and qualitative market research. The quantitative research was conducted by the agency Synovate on a sample of 150 respondents in November of 2007. It included women between 20 and 49 years of age, with at least a high school education, and a monthly income of over 50,000 dinars. The qualitative research was conducted by the agency Strategic Marketing through the method of focus groups, on a sample of 24 re-spondents with the same demographic characteristics. The main conclusions of the research are as follows:• As much as two thirds of the respondents said that they liked
exterior design, practical gardening, fruits and vegetables, plant conservation, deco-rative gardens, trees and shrubs. A variety of reports and actualities, creative ideas and inspirational images make the My Beautiful Garden magazine unique in Ser-bia. Tips and advice from agronomic and agricultural engineers, as well as interactiv-ity, are crucial for the relationship with readers that exudes with cooperation and trust.
Living with flowers advises readers on how to decorate a balcony, terrace, garden, as well as plants in their homes. Interesting topics such as „for collectors“, „health“ or „celebrities and flowers“, allow readers to bring a bit more beauty into their homes every month. Celebrities reveal the role of flowers in their lives through interviews, while experts regularly provide readers with great ideas and useful advice.
Culinary secrets every month bring actuali-ties in the culinary art, ideas for special occa-sions, present restaurants and recipes from all over the world, as well as healthy foods, practical advice, and the sweetest cakes. Short and meaningful articles with numer-ous „mouthwatering“ photographs, as well as the recipes that accompany each given dish, make the Culinary secrets a magazine that readers hold on to for a long time.
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOMEN’SMAGAZINE SEGMENT
The most dynamic publishing segment is certainly women’s magazines. Data on ad-vertising and readership in the category of
Sensa very much or completely.• Almost three quarters of the re spondents would either almost certainly or definitely buy Sensa!• More than half of the respondents believe that Sensa fully meets their expectations.• Eight out of ten respondents feel that Sensa holds attention, and provides information that is personally important to them, easily understandable and applicable in everyday life. The focus groups were realized in such a manner where the magazine Sensa was firstly given out to the respondents for reading and reviewing, so they could later exchange opinions within an interactive discussion.
The answers regarding Sensa, obtained through focus groups conducted by the agency SMMRI in October of 2007, on a sample of three groups of women in Bel-grade between the ages of 20 and 49, are described below:• „Optimistic and cheerful...“;• „Sensa is a magazine precisely for my taste“;• „Beauty and happiness are in us“;• „A compilation of wisdom...“;• „Sensa inspires me...“;• „Sensa – when I want to take time off just for myself...“;• „Sensa seems honest to me...“;• „Honest and unobtrusive, yet very wise and instructive ...“;• „Sensual, séance, chance“ – meanings that respondents
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associated Sensa with, starting with the youngest group;• „Precisely such a magazine was missing“;• „I found a lot of practical advice that I can immediately implement...“;• „Beautiful design and photo graphs...Sensa is simply different!“;• „The positive thoughts at the end are wonderful, as a small summary of everything I’ve read in the magazine...“
The Sensa reader is a woman with open views of the world, honest, without preju-dice, employed, modern, intelligent, friend-ly, independent, and confident. She desires balance in her life, is curious, and always in search of inspiration. She is aware that if she feels good, she will also look good.The target group for the magazine Sensa is women between 20 and 50 years of age, while the narrower target group is women between the ages of 25 and 40.The Sensa magazine is divided into five major units (Rhythm of beauty, 100% real, Life in harmony, All of the senses, and the Special) which, each in its own seg-ment, are intended to raise the readers’ quality of life. The magazine’s slogan is „Sensa – the magazine for a happier life“. The Sensa magazine has no direct com-petition on the Serbian market, although
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution of the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in cooperation with Stevan Vranes and Marko Dacic for the needs of the Menadzerijada 2008 com-petition in the field of solving business case studies. It has been modified to serve as educational material for discus-sions in class. The author altered certain information in order to protect busi-ness data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the company Adria Media Serbia Ltd. and its represent-atives for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. The total costs of promo-tional BTL activities amount to 80,000 euro. The marketing department is also in a dilemma on how to devise the in-troduction of additional product lines for the Sensa brand, and thus obtain a better market position.
there are magazines that deal with related topics. A review of these maga-zines is given in Table 2.1.
The marketing manager of Sensa maga-zine hired you as a consultant of the company Adria Media Serbia Ltd. to think about future promotional activities for the period between June of 2008 and June of 2009. The ATL activities (adver-tising, media appearances) have already been implemented, so the company plans to use that period to focus on BTL activities – sales promotions, organiza-tion of special events and promotions at the point of sale, direct communication with customers – with respect to the target groups’ demands. The total costs of promotional BTL activ-ities amount to 80,000 euro. The market-ing department is also in a dilemma on how to devise the introduction of addi-tional product lines for the Sensa brand, and thus obtain a better market position.
ADRIA MEDIA SERBIA 19%COLOR PRESS GRUPA 14%EUROPAPRESS 9%ATTICA MEDIA 7%HALO OGLASI 5%POLITIKA 5%MEDIA MAX BEST HOME & BEST SHOP 3%E PRESS 2%BLIC 10%DRUGI 26%
GRAZIA 19%COSMOPOLITAN 20%ELLE 20%LEPOTA I ZDRAVLJE 19%JOY 14%JOLIE 4%
CENE PRIMERKA U RSD
CENA PRIMERKA U EUR
PROSEČAN BROJ PLAĆENIH OGLASA
AD RATE 1/1 EUR
PROSEČAM BROJ PLAĆENIH OGLASA VIVA
Alt Press d.o.o.
LEPOTA & ZDRAVLJE
LEPOTA & ZDRAVLJEJOYCOSMOPOLITANGRAZIAELLEJOLIE
418, 069201, 568139,884102,41863,46351,712
Figure 2.3. Average readership of women’s maga-zines per issue for the year 2007
(*Source: Pradex/SMMRI; Target group – all respondents 12-65 years of age; Period Jan-Dec 2007)
Table 2.1. Magazines that deal with related topics*
(*Source: SMMRI; Target group –all respondents 12-65 years of age; 2007)
Figure 2.2. Women’s monthly magazines – share in advertising *
(*Source: Pradex/SMMRI; Period Jan-Dec 2007; does not include media barters, SMS or political advertizing)
Overview of publishers according to in-come from advertising for the year 2007*
(*Source: Pradex/SMMRI; target group – all respondents between 12 and 65 years of age, Period Jan-Dec 2007)
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This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution of the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in cooperation with Stevan Vranes and Marko Dacic for the needs of the Menadzerijada 2008 competition in the field of solving business case studies. It has been modified to serve as educational material for discussions in class. The author altered certain information in order to protect business data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the company Adria Media Serbia Ltd. and its representatives for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic.
Subjects: Marketing, Marketing research, Brand management
Topics: Marketing research, Market segmentation, Positioning of a new product brand, Brand extension strategies
Goalst: Understanding the role of the marketing research process in the process of launching a new product brand onto the Serbian marketIdentifying the specifics of brand positioning of the Sensa magazine brand
Focus groups, Perceptual mapping, Market segmentation (the Censydiam ap-proach), Loyalty programs
Development of a new magazine brand through a promotional BTL activity plan, segmentation skills based on social and individual (psychological) dimensions
Assignments: Student assignment: Analyze the target groups for Sensa magazineDefine a BTL promotional activity plan for Sensa magazinePropose brand extension strategies for Sensa magazine Lecturer assignment:Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative marketing researchPresent students with the characteristics of the publishing industry in Serbia
98 99case study overview
case study 3
Andjelka Brzulja works as the PR & Mar-keting Director of the company Hyundai Auto Belgrade Ltd. in Serbia. The Hyun-dai cafe has been opened in downtown Belgrade in June of 2008, with an aim of building customer loyalty.
The company is considering further expansion of the brand: the introduction of Hyundai coffee or Hyundai ice cream, which would be served at the Hyundai cafe with an aim to become even closer with its members. There are many advan-tages and risks in such a decision.
ABOUT THE COMPANY
The Hyundai Motor Corporation was founded in 1967, while in September of 2000 it grew into the Hyundai-Kia Auto-motive Group. In 2006, the group sold 3.92 million vehicles, making it the sixth largest automobile manufacturer in the world, with more than twenty support services and branches related to the automotive industry. Hyundai Motor Co. employs more than 68,000 people around the world. In 2006, the Corporation sold a total of 2,663,998 vehicles. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries, through more than 5,000 official distributors and showrooms.
Hyundai Auto Belgrade Ltd. is the author-ized distributor of Hyundai vehicles for
Serbia and Montenegro, and has been present on the domestic market since October of 2002. As a part of the global Hyundai network it is obliged to re-spect all of the high demands set forth by the Hyundai Motor Company. The high standards refer to the high quality of service, and the great attention that is dedicated to customers through care about the maintenance and servicing of their vehicles.
Customers on the domestic market are increasingly recognizing the quality of Hyundai vehicles, which is reflected in an average increase of 19% in total sales for the year 2005. Hyundai utilizes the latest advances in engine production, modern design, provides drivers and passengers with outstanding safety, with an excellent ratio of value for money.
Hyundai Auto Belgrade Ltd. possesses a large showroom as well as a service center in Belgrade. They have an extensive sales and service network throughout Serbia as well.
The service centers are equipped with standard and special tools, as well as appropriate equipment for servicing vehicles, with trained service personnel in the fields of mechanics, electrics and electronics of vehicles. All Hyundai ser-vice centers possess all of the necessary parts for servicing their vehicles, during the warranty period as well as after it. Hyundai offers a warranty of 5 years or 100,000.00 driven kilometers, as well as a 6 year guarantee against corrosion.
The Hyundai brand
THE AUTOMOBILE MARKET IN SERBIA
There are many foreign automobile brands on the Serbian market. In 2007, Hyundai held a market share of 2.854% on the Serbian market, selling a total of 1602 automobiles. The leader on the Serbian market in 2007 was Zastava with 30.06%, followed by VW (6.65%), Skoda (6.54%), and Peugeot (5.31%), which can be seen in Table 3.1. Cus-tomers on the domestic market are increasingly recognizing the quality of Hyundai vehicles, which is reflected in an average increase in total sales by 54% in the year 2007. Since the com-pany was founded in late 2002, and up until 2008, they have sold nearly five thousand vehicles.
FOUNDING OF THE HYUNDAI CLUB
With a desire for the company to be-come a reliable partner to customers at every kilometer, the Hyundai club was established, a place for socializing for all Hyundai automobile owners. Mem-bership in the Hyundai club brings numerous benefits:
• Free oil filter at regular service inspections of vehicles,• 10% Discount on purchase of ad ditional equipment, • Free vehicle service check-up.
They are pleased to say that Jelena Janko-vic, an honorary member of the Hyundai club, is the brand ambassador for Serbia.
HYUNDAI CAFE – A NEW MEETING PLACE FOR HYUNDAI CAR LOVERS
On Thursday, the 26th of June 2008, the Hyundai O Polo cafe was officially opened, which would become a fu-ture meeting place for Hyundai vehicle lovers, as well as those who intend to become one. Many guests, members of the Hyundai club, media representatives and public figures were welcomed by the director of Hyundai Auto Belgrade, Mr. Slavc Habic and the owner of the café ‘O Polo, Mr. Aleksandar Dursun. On that occasion Mr. Habic stated: „We are extremely pleased to be the first in Serbia and the entire region to have started such a project, and provided a friendly gathering place in the most elite part of Belgrade for all fans of our brand.“
The opening of the O Polo cafe real-ized the idea of providing Hyundai club members with a place for organized so-cializing, and all visitors of the cafe with a pleasant atmosphere and a chance to get acquainted with all Hyundai models.
The Hyundai club exists for several years now, and its members are proud owners of Hyundai vehicles, and lovers of this au-tomotive brand. See Figures 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.
In addition to the many privileges of being a member, the Hyundai club was conceived as a place for socializing and sharing experiences between all owners of Hyundai automobiles. The opening of the Hyundai O Polo cafe was also a great opportunity for Hyundai, the sponsor of
the European Football Championship, to mark the end of this great sporting competition by cheering for a possible winner of the European Championship in the semifinal match between Spain and Russia. The Hyundai Motor Company has been for many years continuously sponsoring the biggest football sporting events on the planet organized by FIFA and UEFA, such as the FIFA World Cup and the European football championship. The company began sponsoring in 1999 and will continue to do so, seeing as how a contract has been signed until the year 2014.
Andjelka Brzulja and her management have found that the market has not yet been researched, and that customer re-actions to the introduction of the new products by Hyundai Auto Belgrade, Hyundai coffee or Hyundai ice cream, are unknown.
Examples from international practice suggest the possibility of failure when switching to an inappropriate brand expansion category. An example of this is the company Harley Davidson which had during the 80’s of the last century licensed its name out to Harley Davidson cigarettes and wine coolers. Consumers liked the brand, but sales fell because the consumers were confused and had doubts regarding the quality of
Figure 3.1. Invitation letter for opening theHYUNDAI O POLO CAFÉ
Figure 3.2. Photos from the opening of theHYUNDAI O POLO CAFÉ
case study overview
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the products. On the other hand, the introduction of gloves, sunglasses, and leather jackets as additional accessories proved to be an extremely successful brand extension4.
You are in the position of marketing con-sultant. Give your proposal of the activities that would precede the decision to intro-duce new Hyundai products, as well as the advantages and risks of this venture.Likewise, the marketing management team is of the opinion that Hyundai needs to preserve its key brand values and brand identity. Propose the activities that will precede the decision to introduce new Hyundai products, as well as the chances and threats for such an idea.
Figure 3.3. The HYUNDAI logo
This case study was written by Vesna Damnjanovic for the Ecch Case Writing Work-shop in Monaco under the mentorship of Professor James A. Erskine. The author did not intend for it to represent an effective or ineffective solution to this managerial problem. Certain names as well as other information were altered in order to pro-tect the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the company Hyundai Auto Belgrade and Anđelka Brzulja for their active cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without the written permission of Vesna Damnjanovic, 2008, Copyright 2008.
Market share withoutZastava
VW 6,65% 9,53%
SKODA 6,54% 9,37%
PEUGEOT 5,31% 7,62%
OPEL 5,25% 7,52%
FIAT 5,24% 7,51%
CHEVROLET 4,44% 6,36%
DACIA 3,96% 5,68%
RENAULT 3,92% 5,61%
FORD 3,57% 5,12%
TOYOTA 3,42% 4,90%
CITROEN 3,01% 4,32%
HYUNDAI 2,854% 4,090%
HONDA 2,26% 3,23%
MERCEDES 1,89% 2,70%
Subjects: Brand management, Marketing
Topics: Brand extension, Brand expansion, Customer loyalty
Goals: Understanding of the development of customer loyalty through the expansion of the Hyundai brand
Marketing research, Brand extension and expansion
Determining the strengths and weaknesses of the brand extension and expansion strategy on the example of the automotive industry
Student assignment:Explain the manner in which the company can achieve customer loyaltyAnalyze the possibility of introducing a new product in the company Hyundai Auto Belgrade Ltd.Lecturer assignment:Explain the difference between the strategies of brand extension andbrand expansion Present students with the example of the company Hyundai Auto Belgrade– the opening of the Hyundai O Polo cafe
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case study 4
The parking problem in Belgrade, and dynamic pace of life, indicate the need for an offer of small cars for city driving. Ever since the Auto Show in April of 2009, man-agement of the company Mercedes-Benz Serbia and Montenegro began selling and servicing the brand Smart on the Serbian market. The latest model, Smart Fortwo, is in constant development, and the plan of management is to provide vehicles with lower consumption and a distinctive de-sign, which are in harmony with environ-mental trends in the automotive industry.
The company Daimler AG develops, manufactures, distributes and sells auto-mobiles, trucks, vans and buses. The com-pany primarily operates on the markets of the United States and Germany, and employs 272,382 people. The company has earned an income of 99,399 million U.S. dollars.
By the end of 2007, Daimler AG was pro-ducing and selling passenger and com-mercial vehicles which include various brands. When it comes to the passenger program they are:
• Mercedes-Benz brand;• Maybach brand;• Smart brand.
ABOUT THE smart CAR
The company Mercedes-Benz Serbia and Montenegro has been operating on the market of Serbia and Montenegro since 1996, first under the name Inex Interex-port, later as MB Yugoslavia, and finally since 2005 under its current name. It is 100% owned by Daimler AG, and has rep-resentation regarding sales and servicing of vehicles through a network that consists of 9 partners in Serbia and Montenegro. The automotive brands that are on offer are Mercedes-Benz, smart, Setra, and Fuso Canter.
In 2004, the value of the Mercedes-Benz brand was estimated at over 21 billion dol-lars, which at the time made up 1/3 of the total value of the company.
The first smart car was launched in 1998, and that first generation earned it cult sta-tus in a very short period of time. The new smart fortwo car sets standards in its class in the domain of: • Comfort,• Drivability,• Safety and,• Environmental protection.
Smart fortwo is the perfect car at a time of growingly frequent increases in the prices of fuel and registrations, as well as ever growing traffic congestions in urban areas. Consumers in Serbia are showing a growing interest in smaller, and more fuel efficient vehicles. Smart fortwo offers exceptional freedom with low fuel con-
The smart brand
sumption (with no effect on performance and driving pleasure), a unique design, as well as the necessary accessories that make you feel pleased, comfortable and safe. The car is 2.69 m long, 1.56 m wide, and consumes an incredible 3.3 l\100km in the diesel option (4.2 l\100km in the petrol option). It is available in a coupe or convertible option, with a choice of 4 petrol engines and 1 diesel engine.
The previous generation of the smart fortwo car was exceptional in all four of its main features: comfort, agility, safety and environmental friendliness. The new smart fortwo will preserve all of this in the next dimension. It will still remain a vehi-cle for people with an individual lifestyle.
POSITIONING OF THE smart BRAND
Ushikubo emphasizes two main social aspects that affect human desires: „af-firmation and belonging“ and „pleasure and control“. These two aspects provide a framework for the setting in place of four basic needs: change, participation, freedom and stability (Figure 10.1). These needs comprise the consumer „field of knowledge“, and suggest 12 different life styles (Table 4.3.).
Consumers in Serbia are showing a growing interest in smaller and more fuel efficient vehicles. The buyers of a Smart car are:
• Open minded,• Of an adventurous and lively spirit,• Leaders.
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BRAND POSITIONING STRATEGIES
A partnership strategy with the rent-a-car agency SIXT was realized as a brand build-ing strategy aimed at business clients.
The delivery of 10 smart vehicles to the company SIXT is particularly signifi-cant considering the fact that SIXT has a reputation of being the most prestigious car rental company in Europe, which had in advance identified the trend directed towards environmental vehicles with low fuel consumption, as well as excellent city driving mobility. (http://auto.blog.rs/blog/auto/domace-trziste/2009/09/07/sixt-smartovi-na-beogradskim-
ulicama, data from. 16.07.2009)
Brand building strategy with a celebrity
David Aaker has presented five dimen-sions and their attributes, which make up the framework of brand personality. The use of celebrities in a communications strategy enables companies to deliver a message to existing and potential custom-ers, and they are selected on the basis of:
• Attractiveness of the celebrity• Credibility of the celebrity• Association of the celebrity’s identity with the brand
Ivan Miljkovic, one of the world’s best volleyball opposites, has not changed the brand of his car for eight full years now.
Although he is 207 cm tall, our renowned athlete drives a smart fortwo, and as he says, he does not intend to give up this „little one“. Miljkovic emphasizes that he finds it necessary to own such a car if you live in a metropolis such as Belgrade, or Athens where he currently resides. See Figure 4.1. (http://www.pressonline.rs/page/stories/sr.html?id=73755§ionId=44&view=story, 27.07.2009.)
The „I am smart“ Facebook group has also been formed, which in January of 2010 had 2128 members.
An explorer’s spirit, a desire of consumers to be different, and concern about envi-ronmentally friendly cars, have created an opportunity for the positioning of new brands on the Serbian market. The parking problem can be solved with a purchase of the small smart fortwo automobile. New generations wish to live comfortably, and be members of the „I am smart“ group in all segments of life!
Figure 4.1. Ivan Miljkovic, representative forthe smart brand in Serbia
Family and friends
I wish to periodically change my style
I wish to know more
I wish to do something to go forward
I wish to live as I want, regardless of others
I wish to be different than others
I wish to have my own world, separated from others
I wish to spend quality time with family and friends
I wish to be like everyone else
I wish to hold a company with many different people
I wish to relax and rest
I wish to be safe
I wish to be of a healthy mind and healthy spirit
Table 4.3. Subspace of consumer knowledgeand the desire factor
Figure 4.5.„I am smart“ Facebook group
Figure 4.2. Field of consumer knowledge
Figure 4.4. Dimensions of the brand’s personalityEnjoyment
Honesty Excitment SophisticationCompetence Strenght
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Subjects: Marketing, Brand management
Topics: Product branding, Brand personality, Communications strategy
Goals: Understanding of the automotive brand positioning strategy on the market of SerbiaIntroduction to marketing strategies directed towards business and end consumers
Subspace of consumer knowledge and the desire factor (Ushikubo), Dimensions of brand personality (Aaker)
Knowledge and skills in the areas of segmentation, and brand positioning in the automotive industrySkills for recognizing product brand positioning techniques
Student assignment:Analyze the partnership strategy and smart brand development strategy on the market of SerbiaApply the field of consumer knowledge for the smart brand Explain the dimensions of brand personality for the automobile model smartLecturer assignment:Present the characteristics of the brand smart and describe the consumers on the Serbian marketEncourage discussion on a branding strategy through the help of celebritiesExplain the marketing communications strategy with the partner rent a car agency Sixt.
REFERENCES FOR THE smart BRAND CASE STUDY
http//www.smart.com, data from: 15.05.2009.
http://www.smart.com/serbia, data from: 15.05.2009.
Kotler Philip, Dipak C. Jain, Suvit Maes-incee, 2002, Marketing moves, Boston, Harvard Business School Press, str. 46. V.Damnjanovic, Doctoral Dissertation: Integration of the activities of sales, mar-keting and public relations in the function of creating additional value for custom-ers, Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade, 2007, pg.28;
Ushikubo K., 1986., „A Method of structure analysis for developing Product Concepts and its Applications“, European Research, 14, no.4, str. 174-175.
http://www.datamonitor.com, Daimler AG, Company Profile Publication Date: 6.03.2009.
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case study 5
Tennis in Serbia has advanced consider-ably, on the global level as well, thanks to the good results that our tennis players have achieved in the past two years in the senior competition. Filip Spasojevic, a professional tennis player, created the World of Tennis website in June of 2006, which was meant to inform visitors on the latest developments in the „white sport“, provide a place for socializing, learning about tennis, and getting to know other tennis fans as well. As the website evolved over time with additional content, it took up the position of leader by the number of visits from tennis website users in Serbia, according to data from September of 2008.
The expert team working on the World of tennis portal with Philip is considering options for further development. There are proposals to introduce an English version of the website, as well as to modify the ex-isting version with logos of companies that would advertise on the existing website.
world of tennis – Serbian tennis portal
segment b) managing communications
About the website
From 2006 to this day, there have been 6 different versions of the website. The first site was done in a purple color. It was the wrong color for the sport of tennis and for the target group that the site is intended for. The two main tennis colors are brick red and green. Wimbledon is the oldest and most renowned tennis tournament. It is held every June or July (it starts six weeks before the first Monday in Au-gust) and is the third in a row Grand Slam tournament of the year following the Australian Open and French Open. This is the largest tournament played on grass, which associated the founder of the portal to make it – the color green. In the previ-ous version of the site, visitors had the opportunity to choose between a green, orange or blue theme, but it was ultimately decided that the site would have only one main color.
Filip realized this quickly, and began changing versions of the site. As each new version came out, the site was getting better and better. The first version only offered news, and had one author (Filip), who as time went on began meeting dif-ferent people and adding new columns. It is significant to note that the site has transferred to CMS (Content Manage-ment System) which has made it easy to add news and upload photos without the necessary technical knowledge of HTML and XML. In order to create an adequate and visited portal, Filip used ideas from other websites
such as MySpace, where he found ideas on how to improve the offer to visitors through the use of dynamic content and interactiv-ity, and options of setting up a blog, par-ticipating in forums, or creating their own url profile. Every visitor that registers and becomes a member of the site gets their own page which they can set up as they please. There is also an option for a mem-ber to make his or her own link (svettenisa.net/member’s name), a name that is easily remembered by other members.
According to a survey conducted in De-cember of 2007 with an aim to find the best Serbian tennis website, 146 users voted, and The World of Tennis came in second with 38.36% of the respondents. The most votes (45.89%) went to the website of our tennis player Ana Ivanovic. See Figure 5.1.7
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The website’s offer
The offer of the World of Tennis portal var-ies depending on whether the visitor is a registered member or guest. Registration on the site is free and takes less than 2 minutes. By registering on the portal, your very own World of Tennis is formed, or to be more precise, a profile with all of the data that you entered upon registration (all except your e-mail address). A World of Tennis registered member profile enables a user to create friends lists called LINKS, connect with other members via private messages, and view people who visit the profile. It also allows for member activity through participation in comments and forums.On September 7th 2008, the portal had 956 registered users who were divided into tennis fans, recreational players and professional tennis players and coaches (there are also lev-els for the purpose of finding a tennis partner at the same tennis level). See Figure 5.2.
The World of Tennis portal also provides members with the following services:
• Ask the coach (all of your ques tions are answered by the experi enced coach Dragan Serer), Ask the players (your e-mail will be forwarded to the e-mail address of the desired player);• School of tennis (useful articles for beginners which introduce you to the little secrets of the sport);• Ads (if you are selling or buying any tennis equipment or other ac cessories, you can post your ad);
7 Note: the official website of Jelena Jank-ovic has changed its address to: http://www.jj-jelenajankovic.com. The official website of Novak Đoković has changed its address to: http://www.novakdjokovic.rs. The official website of The Serbian Tennis Federation has changed its address to:http://www.teniskisavez.com/, data from: 1.10.2010.
Team of people
For the current leadership position of the World of Tennis portal on the online mar-ket, the credit goes to the professional and motivated people who are tennis fans, and actively participate to make the site better and more visited every day. Apart from Filip who is the founder of the portal, there are the positions of Director of the portal, expert adviser, editor in chief, two editors for an-nouncements and results, two news editors, an executive editor, designer and manager. Their main motto is to provide customers with reliable and timely information (for example: immediately after a match – news are published, and announcements and results are updated regularly).
The team of people working on the World of Tennis portal will hold a meeting next week at which they need to decide on how they will solve the problem of expanding the portal onto the entire server, due to the fact that the number of visitors is increas-ing by the day. This requires obtaining additional sources of income. There are proposals to find companies that would advertise on the portal. Help the team of young people choose the advertisers, as well as the best way to advertise the companies. An English version of the portal would allow foreign users to be-come active members of the portal as well. This implementation requires additional resources, as it is necessary to provide bilingual updates on the portal
• Shop (you can shop online for tennis equipment that will arrive at your home in a few days);• Forum (the first exclusive tennis forum in the Serbian language).
Entertainment which includes:
• Chat (possibility of interactive conversation);• Games (over 30 interesting flash games);• TV system – You can watch matches online because the portal has a TV system with sports TV stations (Eurosport, CNBC, Euro sport2 ...).
Guests and members are allowed to read news that is updated several times a day depending on the activeness of the play-ers. There is also a section of the site where you can follow the results of Serbian tennis players, rankings, scoring rules at tennis tournaments, a calendar of upcom-ing competitions, profiles of our most successful players, and a list of clubs and coaches who have worked with success-ful tennis players. There is also a section in the menu regarding time zones, as well as the possibility of going to other links which include websites of players, tourna-ments, academies, tennis organizations, tennis clubs, etc.
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the best servian web sites
Figure 5.2. Appearance of the World of Tennis portal
Rs 12,094 – 67,6% Serbia and Montenegroba 1407 – 7,9% Bosnia and HerzegovinaUSA 1132 – 6,3% United StatesDe 723 – 4% GermanyHr 381 – 2,1% Croatia Me 249 – 1,4% MontenegroAt 229 – 1,3% Austria Ca 203 – 1,1% Canada Si 157 – 0,9% Slovenia It 155 – 0,9% Italy Fr 119 – 0,7% France Ch 119 – 0,7% Switzerland No 90 – 0,5% Norway Nl 87 – 0,5% Netherlands UK 69 – 0,4% United Kingdom Cl 63 – 0,4% Chile Hug 48 – 0,3% Hungary Mk 43 – 0,2% Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic NZ 39 – 0,2% New Zealand Se 35 – 0,2% Sweden za 33 – 0,2% South Africa Ru 30 – 0,2% Russian Federation Sk 26 – 0,1% Slovak Republic Au 26 – 0,1% Australia Es 23 – 0,1% Spain Gr 22 – 0,1% Greece Lu 22 – 0,1% Luxembourg Ua 20 – 0,1% Ukraine
sample for period : 03.09.-24.09.2008.
– 6.035 – 33,7% Internet Explorer 6.0;– 3.605 – 20,2% Firefox 3.0.1;– 2.928 – 16,4% Internet Explorer 7.0;– 2.275 – 12,7% Firefox 220.127.116.11;– 309 – 1,7% Firefox 3.0;– 305 – 1,7% Opera 9.51.
Figure 5.3. Browsers used by visitors when visiting World of Tennis
sample for period: 03.09.-24.09.2008.
– 5.983 – 97,6% Google;– 122 – 2,0% Yahoo;– 26 – 0,4% MSN.
Figure 5.4. Number of people that have arrived to the World of Tennis website through a search engine
sample for period: 03.09.-24.09.2008. godine:
– 1.659 – 27,7% „svet tenisa„; – 969 – 16,2% „svettenisa„;– 192 – 3,2% „VIKTOR TROICKI„;– 132 – 2,2% „rafael nadal„;– 101 – 1,7% „rodžer federer„;– 72 – 1,2% „skola tenisa„;– 53 – 0,9% „oprema za tenis„.
Figure 5.5. Most frequently used keywords by people trying to reach the World of Tennis website
Figure 5.6. Website traffic of World of Tennis – statistics – Sample for period: 03.09 – 24.09.2008.
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Subjects: Marketing, Internet marketing
Topics: On line marketing, Internet marketing and marketing mix
Goals: Understanding how to define an on line marketing strategyIntroduction to market-ing strategies directed towards business and end consumers
Model 7C for the creation of online consumer experience, On line marketing strategy model (CIM, 2005), SWOT analysis
Knowledge in the field of on line marketing, segmentation according to business and end clientsSkills for keeping track of statistics of an on line portal
Student assignment:Define the target segments for business advertisers and end users of the portal svettenisa.net (World of Tennis)Analyze the introduction of an English version of the websiteLecturer assignment:Explain the differences in user involvement in the on line marketing strategy modelIntroduce students with the svettenisa.net (World of Tennis) portal example
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for class discussions. The author has altered certain information in order to protect busi-ness data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to Henkel Serbia Ltd. and Jelena Sarenac for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic
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case study 6
PontoE Marketing 440V is a consulting company in the field of communications, which focuses on the application of brand-ing and increasing sales. They achieve the given through the application of all com-munication instruments available.
Their philosophy is based on a complete integration of sports, culture and social activities aimed towards a corporate com-mercial and institutional strategy. The main tasks are the development of instruments for communication that would monitor and measure performance, the transforma-tion of corporate sponsorship into effective results, and the differentiation of products and services that are provided to clients from those of the competition.
They are involved in sports sponsorships at the global level. How do companies use team sponsorships as a strategic tool in their business strategy?
WHAT IS SPONSORSHIP?
A general sponsorship can be described as a mutual business relationship between two parties: a sponsor (usually a company) and the recipient of the sponsorship (ac-tors, athletes, education)
Ponto e marketing 440vsports sponsorship
Sponsorship is the financial support of ac-tivities, with an aim of achieving specific business goals. Sponsorship is the process in which companies, organizations or individuals provide individuals or organi-zations with funds, products or services for the realization of profit.
SPONSORSHIP IN SPORTS
Growing interest in professional sports exists on a global level, so the number of companies that use sports sponsorships as a way to reach target groups has increased. In the past two decades, many compa-nies began realizing communication with customers through sports in the form of teams, athletes, events and tournaments.
The research conducted by the company Strategic Sports Ltd in April of 2004 deter-mined the reasons why companies invest money into sponsorships. Results indicate that there are three most common goals of sponsorships:
1. Increasing brand awareness;2. Building brand preference and loyalty;3. Increasing market share and sales.
Other goals of investing into sponsorships which should be mentioned are: building customer attitudes, building trust of a spe-cific target group, providing differentiation from competitors, inspiring employees, launching of a product or service, obtaining a larger advertising budget than the com-petition, attracting media attention, and creating company reputation.
WHO TO CONTACT FOR A SPONSORSHIP?
The departments responsible for sponsor-ships vary from company to company. It is very difficult to find the right person to cooperate with regarding an applica-tion for a sponsorship. The best way is to introduce yourself personally through someone you know. When searching for a sponsorship you can try contacting the following persons:
• Marketing Director: Budgets and sponsorship related activities are usually within the marketing ! ~Adepartment. Many smaller companies do not have a marketing director, so in this case you should contact the general director;• Community relations manager: This is related to local sponsor ships in particular where the local community benefits directly;• Sponsorship Manager: Many small companies do not have this position so you need to contact the Marketing Director;• Brand Manager: Most often in large companies;• Executive Director: If you know that the person working at this position is interested in sports, make sure you get a recommen- dation from a third person.
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It is necessary to research the positions that exist within a company, and choose a contact based on this. It is especially important to present the benefits that you are offering to the company, which may be related to:
• Sales Department;• Marketing department;• PR sector.
Previous experience of the company Ponto e Marketing 440v has shown that a direct approach to sales departments is better than an approach to marketing de-partments. Companies tend to focus more on business solutions rather than only branding. Therefore it is necessary to pro-vide for a more comprehensive interest of the sponsor. It is always better to contact the top manager, the one who makes the decisions, rather than spend unneces-sary time on middle level management. Today, sponsorship is viewed as a strategic project, and it is very important that this is presented as such in order to speed up the decision process in the company that is contacted as a potential sponsor.
LG – SPONSORSHIP PROGRAM IN FOOTBALL
LG Electronics has been the general sponsor in Brazil since the year 2001, the sponsorship program is still active, and a cooperation contract was signed for the year 2009. The sponsorship program be-gan with the Sao Paulo football club, at the beginning of 2001. At the time, LG was a new company on the South American and Brazilian markets, and it was often com-pared to low-quality Chinese electronics manufacturers because it was completely unknown to the local customers (the LG brand first appeared in 1995, and the pre-vious name of the brand was Goldstar).
The Brazilian market is recording an increase in demand when it comes to investing into media, and its media have been ranked as one of the three most ex-pensive in the world.
The program was realized because of a strategic decision to have the investments into the LG brand pay off and improve the formerly weak position of the brand on the Brazilian market.
Sao Paulo was chosen because it has a total of nearly 16 million fans.
The reasons why the sponsorship program continues to operate successfully are:
1) A large number of fans of mainly AB class (highly paid class);
2) Despite the large number of fans, refusal by the Sao Paulo followers – fans can be directed (this means that the sponsor does not have to take a risk when creating the brand strategy in relation to the entire population, in case that the fans do not accept it);
3) One of the best sports arenas in Brazil allowed for the LG brand to be located in a high class part of Sao Paulo, with excellent communication instruments;
4) International exposure, because Sao Paulo is a frequent participant in the Liber-tadores Cup (South American version of the Champions League);
5) The media coverage of Sao Paulo is integrated, with exclusive journalists who follow the team on an annual basis, thus providing year-round coverage for LG.
The program has been functioning for the past 8 years, and the results of the spon-sorship are surprising in relation to the in-vestments (LG has so far invested around U.S. $ 50 million), and the company holds second place in terms of market share. LG operates within three market segments in Brazil: electronics for end consumers, tel-ecommunications, and IT, where all 52 of the product lines experienced an increase of 25% within their segments.
The sponsorship program has been so successful that the company LG has over the years reduced investments into traditional media by 45%. In addition to sponsorships, they invested into programs for development of relationships with strategic partners and customers, in order to create loyalty and a stronger connec-tion between them and LG (U.S. $ 15M). All activities are measured and monitored through sales results of the retailers. The return on investment (ROI) was 347%. The main instruments of the cooperation initiation program were: Outdoor adver-tising, advertising, public relations, viral marketing and social media.
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Figure 6. 1. Clients of the company PONTO E MARKETING 440v
CHALLENGE: • Create brand awareness and desires• Integration of all business units in a unique corporate image
CHANCES:• Find a medium that fits the commercial strategies of all divisions
SOLUTIONS:• Football sponsorship program with national visibility
RESULTS:• Increase brand awareness from 7% to 18% in a period of 18 months• Increase market share for 135% in market of high-end products• Increase the final sale among consumers for about 15% on average
Figure 6.2. The company LG – football club sponsorship
Topics: Sponsorship, Communications strategy
Goals: Understanding the role of sponsorships in marketing and public relations Determining the key steps in defining a sports sponsorship strategy in football on the example of the market of Brazil
Goals and results of football sponsorships, Analysis of sponsoring companies ac-cording to industries
Knowledge in the field of sponsorship and communications
Assignments: Student assignment:
Define the target segments for business advertisers and end users of the portal svettenisa.net (World of Tennis)
Analyze the introduction of an English version of the website
Explain the differences in user involvement in the on line marketing strategy model
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for discussions in class. The author has altered certain information in order to protect busi-ness data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the company Ponto e marketing 440v and Renato Geribello de Carvalho for their cooperation during the writ-ing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photo-copies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic
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case study 7
In January of 2008, forty four year old Dan Beeman, the general manager of Beeman Sponsorship Consulting from Woodland Hills, California, a man who avoids new tech-nologies, was searching for business innova-tions online while trying to devise a new way to promote his agency and position himself as an innovator through social media, espe-cially on LinkedIn. He questioned the signifi-cance of social media – is it a cost effective investment? Does anyone have the time or is interested in something like that, considering the strange names such as Twitter, Twackle, Hulu, as well as new media such as blogging and micro-blogging?
About the company SIG
The founder of SIG, Dan Beeman, started his business of providing consulting services in October of 2007 under the name „Beeman (his last name) Sponsorship Consulting.“ They provided the services of sponsorship, consulting and representation. Shortly after, on February 27th 2008, Dan opened up a group for professionals in the field of spon-sorships and marketing on LinkedIn, under the name Sponsorship Insights Group (SIG). The group had great success with no ma-jor investments into marketing, and it now counts over 3100 members. It is the largest group for professionals in the field of spon-sorship and marketing through which mem-bers can share their experiences, as well as find discounts for various goods and services.
Sponsorship insights group (SIG) a successful story with European perspective social media
Dan’s offer to members was clear – he would provide free quality content, a place to meet and exchange information with other members, as well as an opportunity to learn something new and find new business opportunities. Dan soon realized that the activities he undertook in the field of social media have led to the recognition of the name Sponsorship Insights Group. He then realized that SIG had achieved better market recognition than BSC, so he decided to change the name of his com-pany into Sponsorship Insights Group.
BSC/SIG is a company that provides sponsorship and consulting services, and the company works with facilities and sponsors on finding new ways of gener-ating income, as well as new promotion opportunities. Retail stores, sports halls, complexes for holding concerts, festivals and other special events, are among the types of facilities for which SIG provides consulting services. The sponsors include car companies, airline companies, mobile operators, film studios, media, financial services and many others. In addition to sponsorship services, BSC/SIG, through its Web site, blog and news-letter, also offers information on market trends, business opportunities and recom-mendations of retailers.
SIG’s success is directly related to profes-sional work in fulfilling the client’s wishes. Such a dedication to clients is the result of experience and expertise in the field of sponsorship marketing, as well as many other elements that compose this sophisti-cated area of marketing. SIG has proven to be very successful in determining sponsor-ship strategies, developing and implement-ing sponsorship plans, and thus achieving expected returns on investment for clients. A combination of skills in the field of spon-sorship marketing and creative application of ideas is what distinguishes BSC/SIG from others when it comes to serving clients. (See table 7.1.) The mission of BSC/SIG is to maximize the potential of its clients, em-ployees and their communities. SIG’s vision is also to maximize the potential of market-ing and business between corporations and the sponsored facilities.
The company’s success lies in the creation of exceptional relationships with clients, which are based on mutual respect and commitment to specific and common goals. The consultants and associates guide themselves with their knowledge, experience, creativity and contacts on the market. BSC/SIG does business intelligent-ly and with great confidence, and achieves results within the planned budget.
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Social media are best characterized as a group of new online media, which pos-sess most or all of the characteristics shown in Table 7.2.
Social media refer to groups of individuals or organizations that are related in one or more ways, such as friendship, similar in-terests, values, or even financial exchange. These social media have always existed, but were often complicated to maintain. Differences in geographic location, a lack of time or simply human laziness, have led to frequent changes of social networks.
According to Compete.com (January 2009), Facebook is the most visited social media in the world, with more than 175 million active users. Although it started as a social network for students, it later developed and gave an opportunity to all who are interested to join, and today, peo-ple aged 35 and over are in fact the most active members. Around 70% of Facebook users are not residents of the United States 16,17.The Sponsorship Insights Group (SIG) has 106 members on Facebook.17
LinkedIn is a network for experts from around the world, which includes 170 industries (professions) and 200 coun-tries. LinkedIn was officially founded in 2003 (Table 7.3.). The site was launched on May 5th (employees often call it „Cinco de LinkedIn“) when the five founders of the site invited 300 of their most important contacts to join the network. A month after its launch, LinkedIn had 4500 mem-bers in its network. LinkedIn’s first „real“ office was located at Shoreline Road in Mountain View.
LinkedIn already has 9 million users in Eu-rope, of which around 500,000 come from German speaking countries. Compared to LinkedIn, Xing has 6.5 million users, most of which are from German speaking countries (Xing does not publish data for each country separately). Even if Xing is leading when it comes to German speak-ing countries, LinkedIn has a great ad-vantage when it comes to other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Italy and France.18
With a LinkedIn profile you have the abil-ity to find and meet your potential clients, service providers, experts in specific areas and partners with recommendations; find new business opportunities, look for work, find contacts that can help you realize a business venture; post job listings; find highly qualified candidates and meet other experts through the people you already know.
LinkedIn also offers a large number of group networks for users who share com-mon interests. The Sponsorship Insights Group has its own blog with insights on sponsorships. The members of the group have established partnerships with com-panies who look for suitable candidates for the positions of executors, suppliers and retailers, in order to be able to provide everything necessary for a more efficient searching. People use these associations to achieve lower prices on products and services for their members. The Sponsor-ship Insights Group has 3,262 members.19
It seems today that it is not enough to merely establish a connection with other people. People want to know what you are doing at this exact moment. Micro-blogging has become popular thanks to Twitter, a social network that has recorded the highest growth. The very concept has experienced some changes now – companies (for example Zappos) use it for customer service, while presidential candidates even used Twitter for debates. Twitter is a popular micro-blogging site (http://twitter.com) which answers the question „What are you doing?“20. The ma-jority of Twitter users are people between the ages of 35 and 49. Twitter users are most likely to use wireless technologies – laptops and mobile phones – for Internet access, or mobile phones for texting.
According to Nielsen’s research on the five fastest growing „community member
15 Facebook, Facebook Statistics, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics, data from 28.03. 2009.16 http://www.compete.com data from: 31.01.2009, Top 25 Social Network re-rank.
17 http://www.facebook.com, data from: 7.04.2009.
18 http://aimgroup.com/index.php/arti-cle/linkedins-german-portal-to-focus-on-jobs-and-news LinkedIn opens site in Germany, takes on Xing, data from: 4.02.2009.
19 http://www.linkedin.com/in/danbee-man; data from: 7.04.2009
20 Rachelle Goh, Michael Silverman, Business Person’s Guide to Online Social Networking, Duo Consulting, 2008
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destinations“ in the U.S., it was concluded what we had already known: Twitter holds first place (Table 7.4). During the period between February 2008 and February 2009, an increase of 1,382% was recorded. This was expected if one considers how much media attention the „still out of work“ micro-blogging service model has received in recent months.21
According to research, the average Twitter user is older than the average Facebook or MySpace user: 31 years of age, compared to the 27 years of age of the average MyS-pace user, or 26 years of age of the average Facebook user. The average LinkedIn user is 40 years old according to Pew data.22
SIG keeps track of 200 users on Twitter, is followed by 173 users, and has 83 updates.23
FUTURE MARKETING STRATEGY
The image of social networks is changing every day. New „players“ are emerging on the market, while the old ones are either innovating or losing popularity. From a personal standpoint, it is very important for every professional to begin exploring the different possibilities that are offered by social networking sites. From a busi-ness standpoint, social networking as well as all other social media should be viewed as a long-term investment.24
Research on the characteristic that is most important to everyday visitors obtained the following results: status update 23.8%, a news page 21.3%, comments 17.3%, per-sonal messages 14.9%, uploading images
or video clips 9.4%, mass e-mailing 7.9% tagging and untagging 5.4%. Businessmen should consider this information when de-veloping a social media marketing strategy.People also need a better understand-ing of social networking, its capabilities, and what should be undertaken and what should not. (See Table 7.5.)
It should also be understood that „Market-ing through social media is much more than simply pushing business under people’s noses“, says Stefan Thomas, a Real Marketing consultant. „You need to under-stand the demographics of each network, and create a campaign that is imaginative and interesting to your visitors.“25
On February 27th 2008, Dan Beeman chose LinkedIn as the social network on which he would truly focus. He now re-ceives demand for his services from facili-ties and agencies worldwide, literally every day – they wish to join his group, make use of his knowledge and seek his ser-vices. If you look at Dan’s profile you will see that LinkedIn is a business tool that he uses every day. Time? He would call it well spent. Return on investment? Absolutely!
On January 1st 2009, his New Year’s resolution was to blog every day, and the popularity of his blogs has also grown rapidly. He recently opened up a group on Facebook similar to the group on Linked-In. You can also find him on Twitter.
Major differences still exist between these social networks and their users.
The company SIG needed to identify these differences which are associated with fac-tors that influence user behavior. These factors are: cultural (culture, subculture, social class), social (reference group, family, role and status), personal (age and occupa-tion, lifestyle), psychological (motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes), geographi-cal (different places of residence), and their needs in relation to the social networks.
Different social networking sites are used for different purposes. Facebook, for example, is a good place to connect with friends, both old as well as new. Interac-tion on Facebook is casual – you can poke someone or give them a virtual gift. While on LinkedIn, for example, colleagues can write recommendations for each other or propose business contacts.26
Dan Beeman also had to examine his mar-keting strategy for social networks. How to position himself best on Facebook? Which other social networks should he target? What else could be done to further im-prove recognition of the SIG brand among European customers?
21 Caroline McCarthy, „Nielsen: Twit-ter’s growing really, really, really, really fast“, The Social – CNET News.com, http://news.cnet.com/8301-13577_3-10200161-36.html?tag=mncol, data from: 19.03.2009.
22 Caroline McCarthy, op.cit.
23 From http://twitter.com/danbeeman, data from: 7.04.2009.
24 Rachelle Goh, op.cit.
25 Dan Matthews, op.cit.
26 Rachelle Goh, op.cit.
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BSC/SIG’s offer for facilities BSC/SIG’s offer for sponsors
Employee training in the field of sales
Strategic analysis and evalua-tion of facilities
Corporate consulting and development of goals
Inventory and property devel-opment
Strategic goal analysis
Development of sales material Seeking out and negotiating with appropriate facilities.
Identification of possibilities Program development and application
Winning over customers Reassessment, program evalu-ation and renegotiation 
Representation and negotia-tion
Program management and cooperation with partners
Participation Openness Conversation Community Interconnection
Social media encourages participation and feedback of all inter-ested parties. It ignores the line between media and people.
Most social media ser-vices encour-age feedback, participation, voting, com-menting and information sharing.
Traditional me-dia are focused on „broadcast-ing“ (content is transferred to the audience), while social media support two-way com-munication.
Social media allow for quick creation of com-munities and effective communication.Communities share cer-tain common interests, such as love of photog-raphy, political issues, or favorite shows.
Most social media rely on their inter-connection, using links on other websites, sources and people.
Members 81,000 1.6 million 4 million 8 million 15 million 33 million
Dan Beeman also had to examine his marketing strategy for social networks. How to position himself best on Facebook? Which other social networks should he target? What else could be done to further improve recognition of the SIG brand among Euro-pean customers?
Table 7.2. Social media characteristics
Table 7. 3. Number of members on LinkedIn 27
Table 7.1. BSC/SIG service offer
27 http://www.linkedin.com/static?key=company_info&trk=hb_ft_abtli, data from: 28.03. 2009.
28 Dan Matthews, (2009), „All talk and no trousers?“, The Marketer, str. 28-31.
Take time for campaign develop-ment
Being aggressive and fright-ening potential users
Provide people with what they want
Adopting the attitude, „just set it up, and everything else will come on its own“
Identify critique and openly at-tempt to find a solution
Spamming users with infor-mation they do not need – has negative effect on brand image
Keep track of users and statistics who is doing what
Being impatient – it is a long game
Prepare a campaign and come up with something innovative and new
Neglecting new trends – so-cial networking is developing at light speed
Table 7.5. Positive / to avoid in social networking28
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Figure 7.6. Ranking of most successful social net-works (Source: www.compete.com, January 2009)
Figure 7.7. SIG logo
Subjects: Marketing, Public relations
Topics: Social networks, Communications strategy
Goals: Understanding the role of social networks in an on line marketing appearance of a company on the example of the company SIG
SWOT analysis, Analysis and rankings of social networks, market segmentation
Knowledge in the field of social mediaAnalytical skills for analyzing statistical data of various social networks
Student assignment:Analyze the current situation of the company SIG on social networks and provide suggestions for improvementDefine guidelines for the company SIG for the European marketLecturer assignment:Explain the concept of social networks and the basic differences on the examples of Facebook, LinkedIn and TwitterPresent the example of the SIG group on the LinkedIn social network
This case study was written by Vesna Damnjanovic. It was intended to be a subject of discussion at the Danube Region International Week 2009. The author’s intentions were not to represent an effective nor ineffective solution to this managerial problem. The author expresses her gratitude to Sponsorship Insights Group (SIG) and Dan Beeman for their cooperation during the writing of this case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission from Vesna Damnjanovic, Copyright 2009.
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case study 8
One chilly evening in May of 2008, while coming home after a hard day’s work, Lazar Stojkovic, director of the company touché solutions, saw a group of young people that were gathered around a shop window in the Terazije part of town. The window was decorated with unusual fluorescent colors, and they were com-menting on the unusual design. Lazar was thinking how street shop windows are the first media that should be used for the new streetone product, and how it was necessary to adequately present it to potential clients. He was in doubt as to how to determine the best method of sale with the small budget he had, considering that he invested most of the money he had into the research phase, and development of a solution for the streetone product. He was also thinking about the potential markets that he wished to position himself on. Serbia has many potential customers for these innovative products, but he was considering whether it would be possible to sell these solutions in other countries in the region as well?
Trends in sales and advertising condi-tioned by IT technology
Changes on the global stage have in-fluenced the former industry-based
segment c)sales management
economy to be restructured towards an economy based on information. An industry-based economy marked the period between 1860 and 1960, and its main foundations were in the produc-tion of goods and transport. The strategic resources were capital and natural re-sources. Business was defined and driven by orientation towards production and the product. Sales success depended on sales quotas, which were achieved in negotia-tions with buyers.
The new era economy that is based on information relies on information tech-nologies, while the strategic resources are information. The purpose of conducting business is defined through building rela-tionships with customers. Success in sales depends on added value that the seller is willing to provide to the customer.29
Today, the role of marketing communica-tions has changed. The penetration of world markets in terms of satellite and cable televi-sion has imposed many changes when it comes to promotional campaigns and meth-ods of communication with consumers.
The media are segmented into narrow publics, and it is very difficult to reach a wide audience based on one media. An in-creased number of channels have led to the fact that consumers are turned to various different media, and the impact of mass media on consumers has changed as well. Data shows that consumers are exposed to the influence of numerous media.
29Barry L. Reece, Gerald L. Manning, (2003), Selling Today-Creating Customer Value, (New Jersey Person Prentice Hall), str.5
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November of 1999 at the University of Michigan showed that 75% of children today live spending pre-programmed time. It is not unusual for them to surf the web while talking on the phone and listening to their favorite music CD. The maturing of „Generation Y“ into active consumers with purchasing power is the culmination of the economic revolution which marked the end of the 20th century, and the beginning of the 21st. The most educated generation in history – which has grown up with the Internet, mobile phones and video games – brought with it the spirit of its time, as well as the specific expectations from those whose products or services they are using. Brands cannot address these consumers as if they were children.
Modern consumers are not impressed by the old channels of market communica-tion, which to them carry no wow factor. This new era demands new solutions. The high-tech solutions of the company Touché Solutions have a goal of effectively overcoming the gap between today’s Ser-bian companies and the „Generation Y“, the iGeneration, as well as future genera-tions to come.
In Serbia, according to research by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, 75.8% of the female population and 84.4% of the male population between the ages of 16 and 24 use the Internet. The majority of respond-ents, 84.2%, use the Internet at home; 22.8% use it at work, 17.7% use it at some-one else’s home, 9.9% of the respondents use it in an educational institution, and 3.8% of respondents at Internet cafes.33
At the European Union level, the average time that a consumer spends following different media, expressed in units (min-utes per day), amounts to:
• Television – 248 minutes;• Radio – 215 minutes;• Internet – 124 minutes;• Newspapers – 25 minutes;• Magazines – 11 minutes.30
The latest research in the field of market-ing communications indicate changes in the marketing budgets towards alternative media, which include online advertising channels, social networks, as well as mo-bile and video advertising. 31
New generation users
In today’s market, three major categories of consumers can be observed: members of the baby boom generation (ages be-tween 37 and 55), members of generation X (between 25 and 36 years of age) and generation Y (ages between 6 and 24). These three segments of the population do not speak the same language. Members of the baby boom generation react to words such as achievement, status and success; while members of generation X recognize the importance of imagination, creativity and closeness; and generation Y reacts to fun, interactivity and experiences. 32
The enormous impact of technology and other changes in society have led to generation Y becoming called the super-fast generation. Research conducted in
The Belgrade based company touché solutions was founded on November 13th, 2007. The vision of the founders was the improvement of modern marketing communications through the use of high technologies – primarily all sorts of touch sensitive technologies, after which the company itself was named.
The first four months of 2008 were spent on research work on the development of solutions for interactive shop windows under the name streetone. The name of the product was obtained as a triple wordplay. The prefix „street“ comes from the name of the product line to which the solution belongs (streetline), while „one“ comes from the fact that this is the company’s first product, the first product of the product line to which it belongs. At the same time, this is the first complete solution to con-verting any plastic or glass surface into a touch-sensitive surface that is simultane-ously visible from any angle, and under any conditions of local ambient lighting.
During the research phase, an outstanding contribution was given by the local office of the American corporation Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (better known as 3M). Thanks to Mr. Igor Radisavljevic, it was adopted to implement Vikuiti optical technology of the mentioned U.S. Corporation into the final product, as the best possible solution to the chal-lenges of visibility angles, and autonomy in relation to the lighting conditions of the location where the product is used.
30Große-Berg, Wilfried, (2006), DCAA PR AND MEDIA TRAINING; Mainz, Germany
31Materijal sa predavanja M.Belch, 13th International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communi-cations 24-26.04.2008., Slovenia
32Mark,Gobe, (2006), Emocionalno brendiranje, (Beograd: Mass Interna-tional), str. 3
33http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/axd/index.php, data from: 03.10.2010.
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The product range of the company touché solutions includes products for mobile and video advertising, as well as the inter-active shop window.
Streetair™ represents a complete solu-tion for mobile advertising and informing through the use of Bluetooth® technol-ogy. The solution continuously trans-mits a radio signal which is registered by every mobile phone in range, offering the telephone’s owner the ability to download content intended for distribution – re-gardless of whether it is text, image, video, audio, or Java™ applications.
Streetlite™ is the complete solution for turning any glass or plastic surface into a spectacular display unit. Regardless of whether it is a street shop window, a glass façade of a business building or an exhi-bition stand, any surface can become a video screen that communicates a strong message. The Vikuiti™ integrated revo-lutionary technology of the company 3M allows for performance that no LCD or plasma display can offer – with a com-plete absence of limitations regarding the upper limit of the size of the solution.
Streetone™ is the complete solution for converting a client’s glass window surface into a display that is sensitive to human touch. Thanks to sensors that respond to touch, interested passers-by can, by simply touching the glass, move through the presentation of the Client’s company and the goods or services that it is offering. This
powerful solution for modern market com-munication enables a client to attract and retain the attention of potential buyers, in-teractively inform them about the details of his offer, and provide assistance that leads passers-by directly into the client’s facility.
TRADITIONAL SALES METHOD
When selling products, it is especially important to define a potential client da-tabase, define the solutions and prices, the method of presentation to clients, meth-ods of payment, product delivery, as well as the method of servicing the product in the field.
As a small business financed with the money of its founder, which had to a large extent already been invested into the research phase of development of the new solution, Touché solutions offered a sales model to potential customers which was based on payment in advance and prod-uct delivery within 30 days. The model planned to use the money paid to finance the import of the components necessary to produce solutions that would meet spe-cific customer requirements, the manu-facturing of the solution itself, and delivery of the solution before the expiration of the 30 day period.
Despite the great interest of management of companies where the product was presented, as well as the excellent impres-sions that were taken away from these meetings, it soon became clear that it was necessary to find an adequate solution
to the question of servicing of the sold equipment in the field, and for the com-pany itself certainly more important, a way of overcoming the specific financial challenge in which it found itself.
PARTNERSHIP AS AN INNOVATIVE SALES MODEL
The company soon began searching for an alternative. The model of borrowing from commercial banks under unfavorable conditions for each major purchase was rejected at the very beginning, and it was decided that the best solution was to find a larger partner company whose core busi-ness activity is information technology (IT), and which already has a developed quality relationship with its clients, as well as ad-equate field service of sold equipment.
The new model meant that a client would order a product from the partner com-pany, which would be given the status of dealer of the streetone solution, but would pay nothing until delivery. Upon the receipt of an order, the partner company would pay Touché solutions an amount predefined by contract (including whole-sale trade rebate), and thus fund the pro-duction of a specific solution according to the client’s given specifications. When touché solutions delivers the manufac-tured solution to the partner company within the prescribed time period, the client takes the solution from the partner company, i.e. the solution distributor, and then pays for the ordered products. An additional advantage for a small com-
pany such as Touché solutions was that the same contract would define that field servicing would from that point on be assumed by the partner company, which already has its own intricate network of technical support to clients.
Following a detailed analysis of options, the choice of the most desirable partner fell on the company Energoprojekt-Energodata, the oldest IT company in Serbia. Founded back in 1966 with an aim of developing and introducing information technolo-gies within the Energoprojekt group, it has become specialized for the implementation of information technologies into banks, post offices, other financial institutions and public administration. Successful long-term business relationships with these large systems have made Energoprojekt-Energodata even more desirable as a partner company because of their access to potential large clients. For example, around 60% of all ATM machines in the Republic of Serbia are owned by the company Energo-projekt-Energodata, which rents them out for use by commercial banks.
Thanks to the vision of Mr. Zvonko Ra-dovanovic, the client relations sector man-ager for the company Energoprojekt-En-ergodata, negotiations were successfully concluded with the signing of a Contract on business and technical cooperation on October 20th, 2008. With this contract, Energoprojekt-Energodata received the status of exclusive distributor of streetone and streetlite solutions for the territory of the Republic of Serbia, Republic of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former
142 143case study overviewthe case study method mm
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Republic of Montenegro, while touché solutions was guaranteed wholesale prices defined by contract, complete outsourcing of sales and field service of its solutions, as well as access to potential large clients.
The application of Touché Solutions interactive solutions was promoted at the following business events that have been organized starting from December of 2008: Smart eGovernment (Hotel Con-tinental), KFC socializing with journal-ists and Days of Greece (Usce Shopping Center), Kent HD Party (Warehouse Club) and POWEREDNIGHT (Plastic Light). Photos from the event are given in Ap-pendixes 8.1 to 8.4.
Lazar was able to determine a more cost effective sales method through a partner-ship with Energodata. There are clients in Serbia interested in these innovative products, but Lazar needs a plan for visits of potential foreign customers in coun-tries of the region, for the year 2010. He also needs to decide which markets have priority: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Her-zegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, as well as how to implement the product offer presentation in the most effective way.
Figure 8.1. KFC socializing with journalists (Usce Shopping Center): Željko Bošnjak (Ellecta International), Darko Jakić (AmRest), Lazar Stojković (touché solutions)
Figure 8.2. Smart eGovernment 2008 (Hotel Continental): Milan Dobrosavljevic, Business Law Attorney
Figure 8.3. Days of Greece (Usce Shopping Center)(Hotel Continental):Milan Dobrosavljevic, Business Law Attorney
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Figure 8.4. Kent HD Party (Warehouse Club)
Figure 8.5. touché solutions logo
streetair™ streetlite™ streetone™
Figure 8.6. Product portfolio
Subjects: Marketing, Sales management
Topics: The influence of IT on marketing and sales, Interactive communication, Product sales models, The „Y“ generation
Goals: Understanding of the business of small companies which is conditioned by the need for new interactive communications solutions for the „Y“ generationApplication of the partnership product sales model
Traditional product sales model, Innovative partnership product sales model, Three categories of consumers (Gobe, 2006)
Knowledge in the field of sales and product distribution for small businessesSkills for overcoming the problem of payment for the products through applica-tion of a partnership sales model
Assignments: Student assignment:Analyze IT trends and their impact on advertising and salesPropose a sales plan for touché solutions products on the market of SerbiaLecturer assignment:Explain the differences between generation X and generation YPresent students with the touché solutions company’s product portfolio
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the manage-rial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for class discussions. The author has altered certain information in order to protect busi-ness data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to Touché solutions and Lazar Stojkovic for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic.
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case study 9
The sole proprietorship business Boki has been operating on the territory of Belgrade since 1991 and it deals with the produc-tion and sale of leather goods. It is a family business where the values of the old trade are cherished. Currently working in the com-pany is the owner and one employee, who together carry out the tasks of manufacturing the items (50% handcrafted). The products are made from quality materials and can be ad-justed according to customer requirements.
The appearance of foreign competition from the Chinese market has caused changes in the market, because they offer leather goods products with a low price and poor quality of materials. The owner has renovated the exist-ing production equipment, and is consider-ing the introduction of new products: (e.g. leather laptop bag, reservations rack, etc.), as well as expansion onto the market of Serbia. In the upcoming year he plans to reorganize the current business conditions (the work-shop is also the point of sale), and hire two new employees who would be responsible for marketing and sales of high quality prod-ucts on the market of Serbia.
Market research has identified the follow-ing segments as target customers:
• Companies• Individuals• The HoReCa segment• Specialist retail shops
The company Bokisales strategy development
Appendix 9.1. List of items and sale prices
R. br. Artikal Cena u eur
1 MEN’S BAG A4 35x28 \ LEATHER 160
2 MEN’S ID BAG 23x18\ LEATHER 60
3 MEN’S ID BAG 23x14\ LEATHER 45
4 TABLE MAP 93x46\ SKY LEATHER 75
5 PAPER BOX 14x11\ LEATHER 11
6 PENCIL BOX \ LEATHER 5,5
7 ASHTRAY \ LEATHER GLASS 6,5
8 TABLE LIGHTER\ LEATHER 5,3
9 BUSINESS CARD HOLDER\ LEATHER 7
10 ENVELOPE HOLDER \ LEATHER 11,5
11 A4 PAPER HOLDER,3 PIECE SET \ SKY LEATHER 24
12 ORGANIZER B5 \ LEATHER 14
13 ADDRESS BOOK \ LEATHER 10
14 BUSINESS CARD ALBUM FOR 80 CARDS \ LEATHER 14,5
15 BUSINESS CARD ALBUM FOR 240 CARDS \ LEATHER 20
16 MEN’S BELT \ LEATHER 12
17 MEN’S WALLET \ LEATHER 12,5
18 WOMEN’S WALLET \ LEATHER 13
19 DRIVER’S LICENSE CASE \ LEATHER 2,6
20 DRIVER’S LICENSE CASE WITH MONEY COMPARTMENT \ LEATHER 3,5
21 PASSPORT CASE \ LEATHER 7
22 PLANNER \ LEATHER 26
23 WAITER’S WALLET \ LEATHER 18
24 CUP COASTERS WITH BASE, 6 PEICES \ LEATHER 8
25 CUP COASTER, 1 PIECE 1
26 A4 MENU 31x27 TWO PAGE \ LEATHER 35
27 A4 MENU 31x27 TWO PAGE \ SKY 24
28 A4 MENU 31x27 ONE PAGE \ LEATHER 25
29 A4 MENU 31x27 ONE PAGE \ SKY 18
30 MENU 31x17 TWO PAGE \ LEATHER 28
31 MENU 31x17 TWO PAGE \ SKY 19
32 MENU 31x17 ONE PAGE \ LEATHER 25
33 MENU 31x17 ONE PAGE \ SKY 18
34 MENU 30x15 THREE-PIECE \ LEATHER 25
35 MENU 30x15 THREE-PIECE \SKY 16
36 CHECK COVER 20 x13 \ LEATHER 11
37 CHECK COVER 20 x13 \ SKY 8
38 RESERVATION 16x6 \ LEATHER 5
39 KEYCHAIN \ LEATHER 3,5
40 PHOTO FRAME 9x13 \ LEATHER 40
41 PHOTO FRAME 13x18 \ LEATHER 70
42 PHOTO FRAME 18x24 \ LEATHER 90
43 JEWELERY BOX \ LEATHER 12
44 PHOTO ALBUM FOR 200 PHOTOGRAPHS 13x18 \ LEATHER 80
148 149prefacemarketing in practice applying the case study mmmethod
Born in 1963, 168cm; 64kg; unmarriedBachelor of Economics (1985)2006 – today, Manual representative of foreign company for sales of leather goods2002– 06, Forma Ideale, Sales managerIn charge of a group of three sales representatives in Kragujevac. Achieved the annual sales plan and ensured that the region achieved its sales quotas.1985– 1995 Soko Stark, Sales Representative for sweets.Responsible for sales of the entire line of sweets and prod-ucts for stores of large clients in Belgrade. Sales representative of the year, with growing potential.ActingInterested in working in Belgrade and looking forward to focusing on implementation of sales tasks. Lidija presents herself very well and has an exceptionally good history in sales of sweets. Her results in the previous company were successful. The same company paid for her attendance at the introductory ECDL course, but she did not have many opportunities to develop other com-puter skills. She does not seem to be overly ambitious or aggressive. She stated that personal reasons prompted her to seek employment in Belgrade.
Born in 1967, 190cm; 88kg; married with two childrenUniversity degree of the Faculty of Organizational Sci-ences (1992), MBA studies in Canada 1995–2008 Delta M, worked on sales of consumer products, covered the territory of Belgrade, managed sales groups1992– 95 Jacobs Suchard Canada, Inc. (Nabob Foods)Field sales representative, Three-year work experience (full time)1987–92, worked during exam periods (full-time work during the summer) in distribution and sales of coffee and chocolate, two years as a loader at the docks, one year as a truck driver, and three years as a sales representative. The sales tasks included calling regular clients, taking orders, work on the packaging of goods, and developing relation-ships with clients. I believe that the combination of professional prepara-tion, work experience, as well as skills of team player and team leader which I have already proven, will make from me a suitable candidate for this position. I am especially interested in a job such as sales which rewards personal initiative taken by an individual. A very ambitious and enterprising candidate with a good biography. Has an obvious strong leadership potential, but his interest in working in sales is questionable. He seems to have devoted insufficient attention to informatics at his MBA studies. Has a valid offer to return to Sales Manage-ment in the company Nabob.
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Born in 1974 in Pancevo, 180cm; 84kg; unmarried Business and Management Degree (1998)Was an active participant in numerous clubs and political organizations during studies. 2006– today Oriflame- sales analyst for the region around Nis. Worked on developing sales plans for a wide range of products. Contracted sales programs and trade agreements. Led a group of four people.2002–06 Agroekonomik, Sales manager’s assistantHe was the link between the stores and sales planning management. Responsible for implementing sales plans for several food categories. 1999–2002 Knjaz Milos, Sales manager’s assistant in ArandjelovacResponsible for analysis and development of promotional planning.His main responsibilities were developing and maintain-ing sales and distribution to wholesalers and retail clients.Was a boxer, the champion of VojvodinaIt would be a great challenge and pleasure to work within an industry that is going forward such as the company BokiVery eloquent and professionally qualified. He dominated dur-ing his interview with anecdotes and amusing stories, some of which were important for the job. He likes to read belletristic management literature, especially books that praise coura-geous entrepreneurs. He would probably be earning more money if he was to work for the company Boki
Appendix 9.2. Candidates who have applied for the sales position
This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the managerial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for class discussions. The author has altered certain information in order to protect business data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the sole proprietorship business Boki and Aleksandar Teodosic for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic.
Topics: Sales and marketing communication, Point of sale promotions, Trade marketing sector
Goals: Understanding the need for connecting sales and marketing strategies in the placement of ice cream
SWOT analysis, Point of sale promotion plan
Understanding the role of the trade marketing sector in companies in SerbiaSkills for defining promotional elements at the point of sale
Student assignment:Analyze the points of sale of ice creamPropose strategies for promoting ice cream sales of the company Frikom JSC at existing and new points of saleLecturer assignment:Explain the difference between marketing objectives and salesPresent students with ice cream point of sale promotions on the example of the company Frikom
152 153case study overview
case study 10
Goran Latincic works as the director of sales for the company Frikom JSC in Ser-bia. He devised the introduction of a trade marketing sector in October of 2008 as a mechanism for improvement of sales of ice cream and frozen products, and a bet-ter communications strategy of the sales and marketing sector.
The management of the company, in cooperation with the employees from the trade marketing sector, is consider-ing innovations and sales and marketing plans for retailers and end customers in the year 2010. The business plan must in-clude ideas for increasing the consump-tion of ice cream out of season (June-Au-gust), outside as well as at home; explore the possibility of ice cream portfolio placement at new points of sale: cine-mas, video clubs and betting houses, in order to improve the position of Frikom’s ice cream brand atnew points of sale and with consumers.
Frikom JSC is a joint-stock company engaged in the manufacturing, sale and distribution of ice cream and frozen foods (pasta, vegetables, fruits and fish). It all started during the 70-ies of the last century, when the Institute for Industrial Technology PKB initiated a project for
production of frozen food. The Dutch – British multinational company Unile-ver also joined this project and invested into the construction of a factory, whose capacities were designed according to globally used technology, and in accord-ance with the demands of the domestic and foreign markets. Originally man-aged as a Joint venture unit, the factory itself was given the abbreviated name FRIKOM – frozen food company (FRo-zen food KOMpany).
The contract on joint investment into the construction of the frozen food fac-tory was signed on September 3rd, 1975. According to the Contract on construc-tion, the initial share of foreign founding capital was 48%. Today, after more than 30 years, the company is a joint stock company with a majority foreign own-ership by one of the largest regional con-cerns of the company Agrokor. In Febru-ary of 2003, Frikom became an integral part of the Agrokor concern, ever since great efforts began to be invested into the improvement of the organizational structure, distribution and sales. Parallel with the development of the distribution and sales network, emphasis was also placed on improving product quality through changes of recipes, and increas-es in quality of the basic raw materials.With the help of the Agrokor concern,
Frikomthe challenges ofselling ice cream
Frikom became equipped with the most modern machinery for the production of bread sticks, cones, and ice cream of more complicated shapes and additional flavors. Parallel with the growth of the company, Frikom developed a powerful and recognizable image. Consumers are continuously looking for new products, new flavors and new challenges, so great attention is paid to monitoring global trends, and constant innovation in the de-velopment of new products. Keeping pace with the lifestyles, habits and desires of the consumers, more and more new prod-ucts of the company Frikom are launched each season.
Frikom has completed the project of in-troduction and implementation of certi-fication according to the requirements of ISO and HACCP standards. Application of these standards indicates the fact that the market offer includes standardized prod-ucts that represent the recognizable sign of Frikom’s quality. With these standards Frikom confirms the high health and hy-giene conditions in the production pro-cesses and transparency of the business, as well as a highly professional orientation of all of its employees. Frikom has for the last 5 years been the absolute champion of quality in the ice cream category, declared by a team of expert evaluators at the Novi Sad Agricultural Fair.
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• end-user segment of product distribution. In addition to the given, the trade marketing sector of the company Frikom also applies static and dy-namic merchandising in conducting its business. Static or observational merchandising includes: • positioning of the product on the shelf, • supplying shelves with products, • determining the facing,• determining the prices and product range,• displaying P.O.S. materials.
Dynamic or Interventional merchan-dising deals with: • animating the point of sale,• performing promotions,• organizing in store promotions, • distribution of samples.
Examples of Frikom’s static merchan-dising are shown graphically in Figure 10.5. a), which clearly shows the ap-pearance of an ice cream point of sale which emphasizes the visual expo-sure and brand positioning of Frikom through the use of refrigerators, um-brellas and positions of show boards where the ice cream products are graphically presented together with the prices. Point of sales promotions are organized as dynamic merchan-dising, which are described below and presented in Figure 10.5. b).
PRODUCT PORTFOLIO OF THE COMPANY FRIKOM
The company Frikom has a wide product portfolio which includes:
• Ice cream (impulse, family and catering);• A frozen food program that includes:- Fruits- Fish- Pastry- Pre-cooked meals• A detailed description of the ice cream line is shown in Figure 10.1.
TRADE MARKETING SECTOR
Linking of the activities of marketing and sales in Frikom is achieved through com-mon activities that are organized in the trade marketing sector. These activities refer to sales promotions at the points of sale, and stronger development of the product brand through transfer of the communications strategy of the company onto its business customers (retail sales channels) and con-sumers. The employees in Frikom’s trade marketing sector are responsible for plan-ning, organizing, implementing and moni-toring promotional activities at the point of sale, whose main goal is improving sales.
The trade marketing sector also includes merchandising activities:• discipline of sales promotion,• active brand development,• end communication with the customer,
POINT OF SALE PROMOTIONS
Promotions at the point of sale represent one of the BTL communication activities and influence the improvement of sales to end customers. They include:• Activities before a purchase (es-tablishing a promotional mechanism, a suitable time and place for a promotion, defining and developing promotional materials, setting up stands, training of promo leaders and promoters);• Activities during the act of pur-chase (hiring promotional staff, informa-tion about gifts, monitoring of promo-tions and their effects);• Activities after a purchase (hand-ing out gifts in the form of promotional materials, control of promotional activi-ties, control of sales results, control of brand awareness).
Venues for ice-cream promotions include:• retail stores (In store promotions),• Street points of sale (Street promotions),• Independent small retailers.
In store and Street promotions are presented in Figure 10.2. Depending on the point of sale, different kinds of ice cream are pro-moted: large retailers promote the range of family packs of ice cream, while street sell-ing points promote the impulse ice cream range. The promotional mechanisms are created based on the price of a given pro-motional material, in accordance with the price of the certain product that is being pro-moted. An example of an ice cream promo-tion mechanism is presented in Figure 10.3.
34Zlatko, Šćepanović, (2002), Sales management – Organization, prin-ciples and models of successful sales, Belgrade, Economic review
35Abbreviation POS: Point of Sales Material – Sales management – Organization, principles and models of successful sales, Belgrade, Economic review
36The abbreviation In store promotion refers to promotional activities which include the participation of promoters
37Vesna, Damnjanović (2005), „New tendencies in linking sales and marketing strategies to create customer loyalty“, (Masters thesis, Faculty of Organiza-tional Sciences) Belgrade
156 157case study overviewthe case study method mm
Goran and the management team, in cooperation with the marketing sector, is considering the possibility of better product placement and selling ice cream out of season through existing and new points of sale. Marketing research has determined that people who go to the movies usually eat popcorn. In video clubs and betting houses, there are currently no offers re-garding food – treats. They are also considering ways in which they could place ice cream at new points of sale (betting houses, movie theaters and video clubs), as well as the offer range that should be used (types of packages, additional content) in order to improve ice cream sales and achieve better results than in the previous year.
FRIKOM FAMILY SWEEPSTAKES
The Frikom Family Sweepstakes repre-sents another sales promotion activ-ity directed towards end customers between April and September of 2009. The main idea behind the sweepstakes is to find two identical symbols on an ice cream stick. The slogan of the Frikom family sweepstakes is – Your life is changing. The promotion of the sweepstakes is supported by ATL activities through commercial adver-tising, which calls for participation in the contest, an on line website that further explains the rules of the sweep-stakes, as well as direct communication through a call center – an open line for information about the sweepstakes.
IMPULSE FAMILY RESTAURANT /CATERING
Fruit Grandissimo Vanilla
Standard Quattro Chocolate
Macho Strauss Strawberry
King Twice Banana
Seasonal Vulkano Lemon
Cones Queen’s Cappuccino
Sandwich Grain and chestnut puree block Forest fruits
Forest fruits 6L
Milka Triolade 6L
Figure 10.1. Ice cream portfolio of thecompany Frikom
Figure 10.2. Ice cream promotions of thecompany Frikom at the point of sale
Figure 10.5. Static and dynamic merchandising – example of the company Frikom
a. Frikom refrigerator with ice cream show board
Figure 10.3. .Example: Street promotion mechanism
Figure 10.4. Gifts for sales promotion activities –POS material
Figure 10.5. Static and dynamic merchandising –example of the company Frikom
b. A promoter at a Frikom company stand
Figure 10.5. Frikom company logo
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This case study does not represent an effective nor ineffective solution to the manage-rial problem. It was written by Vesna Damnjanovic in the form of educational material for class discussions. The author has altered certain information in order to protect business data of the company. The author expresses her gratitude to the company Frikom and Goran Latincic for their cooperation during the writing of the case study. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used in tables or graphs, or transmitted in any other way – electronically, mechanically, through photocopies, recording devices or by any other means without written permission. Copyright 2009, Vesna Damnjanovic.
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1. Duncan T. „Principles on Advertising and Integrated Market-ing Communi-cation“, Mc Graw Hill/Irwin, New York, 2005.2. Filipović V., Kostić-Stanković M. „Marketing menadžment“, FON, Beograd, 2007, str. 139.3. Filipović V., Kostić-Stanković M. „Odnosi s javnošću“, FON, Beograd, 2010.4. Gray E. R., Balmer J. M. T. „Managing Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation“, Long Range Planning, 1998, 31 (5), str. 695-702.5. IEG – International Events Group, http://www.ieg.com, 2005, preuzeto: 03.05.2008. godine.6. Joachimsthaler A. „Brand leadership“, Free Press Busi-ness, London, 2000.7. Jobber D., Fahy J. „Osnovi marketinga“, Data Status, Beograd, 2006, str. 287.8. „Strategic Marketing Decision“, Professional Post-Graduate Diploma in Marketing, December 2004 and June 2005, str. 185.
literature from CD
Vesna Damnjanovic was born on August 24th, 1979 in Belgrade, where she gradu-ated from the First Belgrade Gymnasium and the Faculty of Organizational Sciences – where her major was Management. She defended her master’s thesis and doctoral dissertation at the Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Belgrade. She also specialized in Strategic Marketing Management in prac-tice at the Chartered Institute of Marketing in Great Britain. She is currently employed at the Faculty of Organizational Sciences as an independent lecturer and Head of the Department of Marketing Management and Public Relations. At the undergraduate level, she teaches Marketing, Public Relations, Sales Management and Strategic Marketing. At the master’s study level, she is engaged on the subjects of: Key Account Management, Brand Management, Sales Management and Marketing Management – a holistic approach. She has many years of consulting experience in education and the develop-ment of projects for domestic and foreign companies in Serbia, as well as the region. She has published over 30 expert and scien-tific papers and case studies, at national and international conferences and journals. She was a mentor to the students of the Faculty of Organizational Sciences who have in recent years won case study competitions at the local, national and international level. She has also participated in the education of university professors and students in Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzego-vina, Turkey and Austria. Vesna is a member of the editorial board of Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, Serbia’s representative for the International Institute of Marketing Professionals at the global level, as well as the Serbian representative of the Euromed Institute in Cyprus.
For more information visit thehttp://rs.linkedin.com/in/vesnadamnjanovic.
Enormous success of the students of the Faculty of Organizational Sciences: Tamara Pajevic, Ema Neskovic, Ninoslav Stojsavlje-vic, Aleksandra Nikolic and Jovana Dadic, that has been achieved in London in March of 2011 when they defeated all of the leading business schools in Europe at the Hult Busi-ness Challenge Competition, has made me immensely happy. The years of hard work with students on case studies, as well as the support of my assistant Branka Novcic, repre-sent an irreplaceable and unique experience that has helped us all learn, evolve and shine on the international scene.I wish you all lots of good luck in your future work, as well as many opportunities to im-
prove yourselves through application of the case study method, which can help make it easier to understand theory with practi-cal knowledge, and a different approach to thinking – solving real problems from practice, and connecting with quality people in the field of marketing management.
You can find me at:
about the author message toreaders dr. Vesna Damnjanović
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Say that you are the type who is starting new small business. You have given attention to the overall chances for success, and have chosen the new business you wish to establish.
What practical problems will you face in starting the business? How much money will you need for starting new small business? Where can you obtain it? What form of business organization will you have? Where should you locate the business?
The first question you want to answer is: How much money will I need? But this question can't be answered until several other questions are answered and several decisions are made.
To decide how much money is needed to start a business, enter all of your potential income and all of your planned expenses on a work sheet or form.
Even though you may feel that this kind of planning is more than you need to start a simple small business it is useful to get started with this approach to management which puts figures down in black and white. You will find the same approach valuable in an established business.
First, estimate your sales volume. This will depend on the total amount of business in the area, the number and ability of competitors now sharing that business, and your own capability to compete for the consumer's dollar. Obtain assistance in making your sales estimate from wholesalers, trade associations, your banker, and other business-people. Several business and statistical publications may be useful in making sales volume estimates.
In reaching your final estimate of sales do not be over-enthusiastic. A new business generally grows slowly at the start. If you overestimate sales you are likely to invest too much in equipment and initial inventory, and commit yourself to heavier operating expenses than your actual sales volume will justify. Since you are just starting up you might have no sales for the first few months. At any rate you can expect your first few months to be very low.
You must also determine what proportion of your sales will be cash and what proportion will be sold on credit. If you estimate that a certain portion of the sales will be on credit then you must figure when you are going to get the money for these sales. One month? Two months? More? Never?
Next, in our guide to starting new small business, estimate how much cash will be paid out. Remember that in starting a business you may be purchasing equipment, paying fees and licenses, making deposits on lease, utilities and so on, several months before you open the door. Some of these expenses are easy to estimate. If you have decided to lease a building (more about that later) then you know what your deposits will be and how much you will have to pay out each month. You can probably get the cost of fees, licenses and utility deposits with a few telephone calls.
Other expense figures may take a little more work to get. One way is to obtain typical operating ratios for the kind of business in which you are interested. Among the sources for such ratios are Dun & Bradstreet, Inc., trade associations, publishers of trade magazines, specialized accounting firms, industrial companies, and colleges and universities. The typical ratios for your type of business multiplied by your estimated sales volume will serve as bench marks for estimating the various items of expense. However, do not rely exclusively on this method for estimating each expense item. Verify and modify these estimates through investigation and quotations in the particular market area where you plan to operate.
Don't forget to pay yourself too. You may need money to live on if you have to quit your job. If your spouse is working and can support the family for a while you may not have to withdraw money from the business. The longer you can go without taking money out, the quicker you will build up a strong cash position. Now that you have estimated your cash receipts and expenses, write down the amount of cash you will put into the business to start. This goes on line 1 in the example below. Next, add lines 1 and 2 for the first month to get line 3. Then add up all of the expenses to get line 5. Subtract line 5 from line 3 to get line 6. This cash at the end of month 1 then goes to line 1 for the beginning of the next month, and so on.
If you continue this for the entire year, very soon you will find you have negative numbers or a negative cash flow. About this time you will also realize that you should be working on this form with a pencil that has a good eraser.
Getting the Money Needed to Starting a New Small Business
Now that you have computed your initial capital requirements, where will you get the money? The first source is your personal savings. Then relatives, friends, or other individuals may be found who are willing to "venture" their savings in your business. Before obtaining too large a share of money from outside sources, remember you should have personal control of enough to assure yourself ownership.
Once you can show that you have carefully worked out your financial requirements and can demonstrate experience and integrity, a lending institution may be willing to finance part of your operating needs. This may be done on a short term basis of from 60 days to as much as one year. Any institution that has money to lend is primarily concerned with security. The security may be a business asset, but when you're just starting the best security is usually your home or some other personal asset.
The second thing the lender will want to see is some sort of business plan. If you complete a business plan - which includes a cash flow forecast - the lender will see that you have done some serious and realistic thinking about your business and be more likely to consider your request.
Become acquainted with your banker. In selecting a banker consider progressiveness, attitude toward your business, credit services offered, and the size and management policies of the bank. Is the bank progressive? The physical appearance of the bank may give you some indication. When the employees are reasonably young, interested in your problems and active in civic affairs the bank is likely to be progressive. The character of the bank's advertising may also be a clue to its progressiveness.
To be effective the banker should be interested in helping you to become a better manager, and build a continuing relationship that will mean profitable business for you and the bank over the years.
Will the bank offer you the kind of credit you need? For example, if seasonal accumulations of inventory become a problem will the bank make a loan against public or field warehouse receipts? If your capital is tied up in accounts receivable during your heavy selling season, will the bank take these receivables as security for a loan? Will the bank consider a term loan?
Finally, know the size and management policies of the bank. Will your maximum requirements fall well within the bank's "legal limit"? If you plan to do some export business, does it have a foreign exchange department? If you or your dealers sell on installment terms does the bank have facilities for handling installment paper? How deeply is the bank concerned with the growth and prosperity of your local community?
When you deal with your banker, sell yourself. Whether or not you need a bank loan, make it a practice to visit your banker at least once a year. Openly discuss your plans and difficulties. It is the bank's business not to betray a confidence. If you need financial assistance carefully prepare, in written form, complete information that will present a thorough understanding of your entire proposition. Many business-people or prospective business operators destroy their chances of obtaining financial help by failing to present their proposition properly. Remember, before a banker will make a loan he/she must have satisfactory answers to questions such as these:
1. What sort of person are you?
2. What will you do with the money?
3. When and how do you plan to pay it back?
4. Does the amount requested allow for unexpected developments?
5. What is the outlook for you, for your line of business, and for business in general?
Trade creditor or equipment manufacturer, Companies from which you buy equipment or merchandise may also furnish capital to you in the form of extended credit. Manufacturers of store fixtures, cash registers, and industrial machinery frequently have financing plans under which you may buy on an installment basis and pay out of future income. You need not pay for the goods at once. If goods are for resale, no security other than repossession rights of the unsold goods is involved. However, too extended a use of credit may prove expensive. Usually cash discounts are quoted if a bill is paid within 10, 30, or 60 days. For example, a term of sale quoted as "2-10; net 30 days" means that a cash discount of 2 percent will be granted if the bill is paid within 10 days. If not paid in 10 days, the entire amount is due in 30 days. If you do not take advantage of the cash discount, you are paying 2 percent to use money for 20 days, or 36 percent per year. This is high interest. Avoid it.
One of the principal causes of failures among businesses is inadequate financing. If you do go into business, remember it is your responsibility to provide, or obtain from others, sufficient money to supply a firm foundation for your enterprise.
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Colt IPv6 for Business Customers Case Study - Swiss IPv6 Council Jun 2013-v3
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© 2010 Colt Technology Services Group Limited. All rights reserved.
IPv6 for Business Customers – Colt’s Case Study Javier Benitez, 11 June 2013
Network and Platform, Strategy & Architecture
1 About Colt
Colt’s IPv6 Strategy – Dual Stack
Colt’s IPv6 Project Case Study
What Next After Dual-Stack?
Colt – The Information Delivery Platform
• 44,000km EU high capacity long
distance network, 27,000 transatlantic
• Connecting 22 countries, 39 metro
networks and >150 cities
• 20 data centres and 19,000 connected
• 500+ NNIs, customers in 77 countries
Colt’s IP Network Overview
• Business customers only
• Coverage: Focus on EU (13 countries, 44 cities); extensive EU IP peerings and US East Coast presence completed by E-NNIs and MPLS-NNIs
• Data Centres: 20 DCs in 14 cities in 10 EU countries (30,000 +sqm)
• Routing: AS (8220); ISIS (single area, 2-level); MPLS (LDP)
• Size: 350+ PE; 60+ P; 20+ PR; 30K+ CPEs
• Core Links: n*10GE
• Services: Internet Access (and Transit); MPLS IPVPN, VoIP
• Integrated network: same PE/P for Internet & VPN
• Access connectivity: Ethernet (on-net & off-net); DSL (Ethernet ULL & ATM/L2TP wholesale DSL); MPLS-NNI (type A/B); TDM (off-net)
Colt IPv6 Strategy for Business Customers
• Business customer requirements led to Dual-Stack
– Same IP services/features delivered over native & parallel IPv4/IPv6
• The sooner it can be offered the earlier customers will be able to start their own learning and transition
– Customer education is key!
• Colt’s short to mid term strategy: Dual-Stack
– 6PE & 6VPE (MPLS transport)
– IP services & features seamlessly developed for IPv4/IPv6
– Colt’s IPv4 address pool at current allocation rate: 3+ years
Colt IPv6 Case Study
• Colt is hopefully a representative use case for IPv6 business-only service provider
– Typically the focus is still on residential SPs (due to IPv4 address exhaustion)
• It can also be of interest to enterprises when planning for their internal projects
• Colt IPv6 Project phases:
– Internal business case
– Infrastructure design & implementation
– Product development
Colt IPv6 CS (I) : Internal Business Case
• First IPv6 conference attended: 2nd Global IPv6 Summit (Madrid 2002)
– “IPv6 is a reality: It's not an illusion, it's a need”
• Architecture & design teams tried to raise an IPv6 project several times in the period 2002-2008, but:
– There were no customer demand
– IPv4 exhaustion was still not critical
– Therefore: It was not possible to build the business case for IPv6
• 2009 was the inflexion point in Colt:
– IPv4 exhaustion started to have more external visibility
– A new business case was built accounting for all IP product revenue at risk
– Intensive IPv6 internal education campaign (product & management)
– IPv6 infrastructure project was approved to start in 2010
– IPv6 product development approved to start in 2011
Colt IPv6 CS (II) : Infrastructure Design & Implementation
• IPv6 Infrastructure project started in Q1 2010
• Scope: IPv4/IPv6 Dual-stack across Network & OSS
• MPLS transport in the core (IPv4 IS-IS/LDP)
• 6PE (Internet), 6VPE (IPVPN) in the access
• Full network upgrade completed Q3 2012
• Dual-Stack across all major OSS systems (monitoring, performance, provisioning, Syslog, Mail, DNS, Radius, NTP, etc.
• Just completed Q2 2013
• First alpha Internet transit service: V6WC Paris 2011
– Early setup based on limited 6PE deployment
• World IPv6 Day (www.colt.net) 8 June 2011
– Use case on how to quickly bring IPv6 web content online
V6 World Congress – IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack
IP/MPLS Core AS 8220
Carrier Ethernet Metro Access
IPv4/IPv6 PE/6PE (Paris)
IPv6 Transit (Paris, Frankfurt,Amsterdam
IPv4/ IPv6 Transit (New York)
IPv6 Network 2001:920:7000::/48
IPv4 Network 18.104.22.168/24
EU/US IPv4/IPv6 Peerings
World IPv6 Day – Colt Setup Topology
Colt IPv6 CS (III) : Product Strategy
• No commercial distinction between v4/v6 traffic
• Enable all existing IP products and features for IPv6
• Deliver the required flexibility to support customer’s own transition plans
• Eventual (long-term) withdrawal of all products and features not compatible with IPv6
• Business Customer – IPv6 Reality assessment:
– Interest restricted to early-adopters & large corporations
– The greater mass of smaller customers are being very reactive, not considering IPv6 at the moment
– Questions about Colt’s IPv6 support & roadmap in RFPs have significantly increased
Colt IPv6 CS (III) : Product Development
• Basic IPv6 product development project
– Basic Internet Access service (“wires-only”, i.e., unmanaged service) started in Q1 2011
– Learning approach
– Beta trial started June 2011 with 19 customers all around Europe
– Service officially launched Q4 2012
• Full IPv6 product development project
– Dual-Stack full feature parity for Internet Access & IPVPN (started Q3 2011)
– 3 phase approach (feature prioritisation)
– Phase 1 about to be launched. Phase 2/3 Q4 2013
– Tactical transition techniques analysed in Phase 3
• Dual-Stack is good but …
– it is quite likely that it will not be enough
– and customers will request tactical transition tools
– what are the other techniques that could help and are suited for business customers?
• Colt’s plans beyond Dual-stack :
– IPv4 address preservation techniques (short term)
– NAT64 “in the cloud”
• IPv4 customer content visible in IPv6 Internet (short term)
• IPv6 customer content visible in IPv4 Internet (mid/long term)
• IPv6 customer end user access to IPv4 Internet (long term)
• Transition techniques will be implemented in existing PE devices (using available service cards), local to each IP PoP
• Dual-Stack is Colt’s IPv6 strategy for business customers
• Lessons learnt
– Internal business case is always difficult to sell
• Internal education a must
– Training is fundamental
• Well spent money
– OSS is where we have found most of the issues
• The network was much easier
– Customer education should be done in early stages
• Periodic sessions with customers
• No magic solution (unfortunately) for business customers
– Every customer will have to go through its own migration
• Don’t panic, but do start your own project now (if you haven’t already)
Thank you. Questions?
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sdm law college mangalore course syllabus action plan · p. subba rao international business...
Post on 14-Mar-2020
SDM Law College Mangalore
COURSE SYLLABUS Action Plan
Karnataka State Law University
Name of Subject: BUSINESS STATISTICS
Lecture hours/weekly: 6 Hours
Course Objectives: The course intends to spell out the statistical methods of calculation and analysis with appropriate expressions. The
fundamentals of the subjects such as data collection and classification are introduced. The measuring of Central Tendencies, Dispersion and
Correlations are taught to enable the students for research activities.
Topic Pre-requisite Reading
1. Business Statistics –
S. P. Gupta
2. Business Statistics –
B. N. Gupta
(2 hours in
Meaning – Definition &
Scope of statistics,
collection of data –
primary & secondary –
classification & tabulation
– Graphs – Histogram &
Pie & Bar diagrams
(single dimensional only)
Lecture and Case
Measures of central
tendency – A. M. Median,
Quartiles & Mode
(without grouping), G. M.
S. C. Gupta
D. N. Elhance
3. Business Statistics
for Business and
Leonard J Kazmier
Measures of Dispersion –
Range, Quartile deviation,
deviation & standard
coefficients, Skewness –
Bowly’s & Karl Pearson’s
1. . Business Statistics – S.
2. 4. Business Statistics –
3. 5. Business Statistics
Economics – Leonard J
Correlation – Meaning,
Utility, Karl Pearson’s
Regression & estimation
1. Business Statistics – S.
2. Business Statistics – B.
(3 hours in
Index Numbers: Meaning
– Uses – Steps involved in
index numbers – Methods
– simple, weighted,
number, Pasche’s Index
Number, Fisher’s Ideal
(Including TRT & FRT),
Consumer Price Index
3. Business Statistics – S.
4. Business Statistics – B.
Roopesh Assistant Professor
Name of Subject: EDP
Course Objectives: The course intends to elaborate on the Human Relations aspects of entrepreneurship. It also highlights the legal requirements for
establishment of new Units, licensing, clearance and other legal compliances. The Entrepreneur development programmes such as motivational
aspects are highlighted.
. Small Scale industries and
C. S. V. Murthy
Entrepreneur – Meaning,
Functions and types;
of new Units
Legal requirement for
establishment of new
Clearance, certificate from
. Entrepreneurship and small
business management- C. B.
Gupta and Khanka.
objectives, phases in DP
and operational Problems,
Meaning, Importance and
S. Anil Kumar, S. C.
Poorinima, M. K. Abraham and
April 16 to
Political and Legal
Motivation – Motivating
Factors – Compelling
and Facilitating Factors;
SDM Law College, Mangaluru
Name of Sub: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
Course Objectives: The course intends to focus on ‘International Marketing’. The onset of globalization and its inevitable legal consequences are
required to be appreciated by legal fraternity. The concepts of MNCs and the global market with international business environment and the
intricacies involved with it are highlighted.
Chanda. G. K. – WTO and Indian
G. S. Batra & R. C. Dangwal –
International Business: New
International Marketing –
Trends in International
Trade – Reasons for
going International –
Global Sourcing and
Production Sharing –
Stages and Orientations –
Economic Power of
Developing Countries –
Decision – Case Studies
– Cartels – State Trading
Blocks and Growing
Intra-Regional Trade –
Groupings – SAARC –
GATT/WTO and Trade
Liberalization – The
Uruguay Round –
Jean Pierre & H. David
Hennessay – Global Marketing
Structures – Dominance
of MNC’s – Recent
Trends – Code
of Conduct –
P. Subba Rao
Multinationals in India –
India in the
India in the Global
Setting: India an
Market – India in the
Global Trade –
Integration with Global
Economy – Obstacles in
Factors Globalization –
Strategies – Case Studies
Trade Policy and
India: Trade Strategies –
Strategy of India – Export
Import Policy – An
of the Policies –
Promotion of Foreign
May 25 Trade in
India – Expert Incentive –
Marketing Assistance –
Facilities for Exporters –
Units and Export
– Export Houses and
SDM Law College, Mangalore Course Syllabus Action Plan
Department of Law
Course: I BA.LLB (A &B Batch) Name of Sub: Organization and Institutions
Lecture Hours/Weekly: 6+6 Hours
Course Objectives:The course intends to provide a comprehensive and integrated view of various organs of the government and the
institutions of administration
Topic Methodology Suggested Readings Remarks
1. Meaning and
2. Meaning and
common Law in
Lecturing and PPT
Political Science – A C Kapoor
Political Science A K Gokhale
Political Theory- R C Agarwal
Political Science – Garner
Political Science - V D Mahajan
3. Need for and
methods in USA,
4. Forms of
Unitary (UK &
March 23 1. Meaning and
and bi cameral,
2. Meaning, types
civil service in
Unit III April 23 1. History, Meaning,
Citizenship, Laws of
2. Meaning, formation,
and demerits, kinds
and working of
3. Meaning, nature and
limitations of public
kinds, merits and
4. Meaning, importance,
and methods of
Unit IV April and May 15 1. Meaning, importance,
electorate (Views of
2. Meaning, Kinds,
features, merits and
3. Methods of election-
Direct and Indirect,
open and secret,
single and plural
(Views of J S Mill)
4. Features, merits and
5. Arguments for and
against Franchise for
Unit V May 12 1. Representation-
functional, role of
arguments for and
against , Methods
member and multi
System, merits and
COMPANY LAW - TEACHING PLAN
VI SEM 5 YEARS 3rd
YEAR- BBA LLB
The Course is designed to understand the formation, management and other activities of the companies.
In view of the important developments that have taken place in the corporate sector.
Important regulations pertaining to the issue of shares and the capital raising have come into force till Company
This course aims to impart the students, the corporate management, control, the remedies and the government
regulation of corporate business and winding up companies.
History of Company Legislation
The Companies Act
Registration and incorporation-
Lifting of corporate veil
promoters-duties and liability of
Lecture method +PPT
Procedure of incorporation
certificate of incorporation
Doctrine of indoor management
Board of directors-
powers and functions
distributions of powers between
board of directors and general
directors-types of directors-
powers and duties of directors-
Meetings: Meetings of Board
and Committees-kinds of
meetings-procedure –resolutions- prevention of
oppression and mismanagement
Corporate social responsibility
Sources of capital :
Shares- Types- allotment-
transfer –privileges of
appointment of trustee and their
duties- remedies for Debenture
Acceptance of Deposit by
Charge on Assets
Concept –jurisdiction and
powers of NCLT-
takeover and acquisition of
Winding-up: modes, who can
Case study- Olympic
FAMILY LAW II - TEACHING PLAN
YEAR- BA LLB ( A & B Section)
The Course is designed to endow the students with knowledge of both codified and uncodified portions of
Mohammedan Law, Christian and Parsi Laws.
The course concerns itself with the sources , schools , insitutions , succession, maintenance, menace of dowry etc.
In addition to that students have to familiarise themselves with the provisions of Indian Succession Act
Development of Islamic Law
Schools of Islamic Law
Mohammedan , Conversion to
Islam- consequences on the family
Marriage, Sucession, Child and
The Shariat Act 1937
Sources of Islamic Law
Marriage , Essentials –requirements, Classification
Effects of valid, void and irregular
Muta marriage ,
childmarriage, option of Puberty,
Dower –widows right to retention
Parentage, legitimacy and
acknowledgement of paternity
Maintenance and education
Guardianship and parental
Matrimonial Remedies under
Modes of Talaq – iddat
Indian Divorce Act
MW(Protection on Rights on
Mulla – Principles
Shah Bano Begum Case
Will, limitations on a
mohammedan in making a will
Difference b/w Will and Gift
Essentials of valid gift – kinds
Wakf- Essentials , Mutawali,
powers and duties
Pre emption , nature, who can
Formalities , when the right to
pre- emption is lost
Law of Intestate
Muslim law of inheritance
Shia and Sunni school
Distribution of property under
Domicile – its kinds, Modes of
Acquisition of Domicile
Parsis Intestate Succession and
Non parsis Intestate succession
Probate and letters of
Powers and duties of Executor
Wills – Privileged and
Construction of wills in Brief
Kinds of Legacies
Specific and demonstrative
Protection of property of the
Appointment of Curator
Powers and Duties of Family
Constitution , powers and its
Need for the Uniform Civil
Code – Article 44 Indian
SDM Law College Mangalore COURSE SYLLABUS Action Plan
Course: BALLB/LLB Name of Sub: Insurance Law Lecture hours/weekly: 18 Hours
Course Objectives: This course is designed to acquaint the students with the conceptual and operational parameters, of insurance law
No of Hours
12 Hours (2 hours in case of emergencies)
History of Insurance-
Insurance in India-
Insurance Act, 1938-
Authority Act, 1999: Its
role and functions
K S N Murthy
in India M H
E R Hardy Ivamy - General
Principles of insurance Law,
Relevant Chapters Insurance
The Marine Insurance Act,
General Insurance (Business)
(Nationalization) Act, 1972
The Life Insurance Corporation
Act, 1956 Motor Vehicle Act,
accumulation – Vested
and contingent interest,
Void conditions, Rule of
Principles of insurance
Law, Relevant Chapters
Insurance Act, 1938,
The Life Insurance
Corporation Act, 1956
Motor Vehicle Act, 1988
12 Hours (2 hours in
contract of Insurance-
Nature of various
Parties there to-
Principles of good faith
- non disclosure -
method of payment,
days of grace,
forfeiture, return of
premium, Mortality The
risk - Meaning and
scope of risk, Causa
Proxima, Assignment of
the subject matter
Life Insurance: Nature
and scope of Life
Insurance- Kinds of Life
Insurance. The policy and
formation of a life
insurance contract- Event
insured against Life
the risk- Amount
recoverable under the Life
Policy- Persons entitles to
claim and payment of
money- Life Insurance
against third party rights-
General Insurance Act,
1972- The Motor
Vehicles Act, 1988 - Sec
(140-176), Nature and
scopeAbsolute or no fault
liabilities, Third party or
compulsory insurance of
motors vehicles- Claims
Tribunal- Public Liability
Insurance -Legal aspects
of Motor Insurance -
Claims - Own Damages
Claims - Third Party
Unit IV April 16 to 12 Hours Fire Insurance: Nature K S N Murthy Lecture
Fire Insurance April 30 (2 hours in
and scope of Fire
Principles - Conditions
& Warranties -Right &
Duties of Parties -
Claims - Some Legal
Aspects Introduction to
Agriculture Insurance -
History of Crop
Insurance in India -
with Crop Insurance -
Cattle Insurance in India
20 Hours (2 hours in
Nature and Scope-
emergencies) Insurable interest
Perils of seaLoss-
Kinds of Loss- The
Act, 1963 (Sections
Rakshith B V
Assistant Professor of Law
Mrs . Deepa Salian
TEACHING PLAN OF LABOUR LAW I – 3 YRS 1ST
LECTURE HOURS/ WEEKLY: 6 HOURS
bird’s eye view
of the Act-
Case law discussion
Labour and industrial law
Twelfth edition 2009
Dr. B.G Goswami
Labour Industrial Law
Tenth edition 2015
Dr. Meenu Paul 9th
Discussion of the
Law relating to
Concept of Lay
28 Edition Central
Act of 1948
Industrial Law 28
Edition Central Law
, Safety and
case law discussion
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: FAMILY LAW –II: MOHAMMEDAN LAW AND INDIAN SUCCESSION
Lecture hours/weekly: 18 Hours
Course Objectives: Acquaint the students with knowledge of both the codified and uncodified portions of Mohammedan Law. To familiarize students
with the provisions of the Indian succession act and to develop appreciative faculties of the students in statutory as well as case - law in this area
Modules/Unit Date No of Hours Topic Pre-requisite
Methodology Supplementary Readings Remarks
Advent of Islam and
development of Muslim
Law-Schools of Muslim
Law-who is a
and its consequences on
Child and Family: the
Shariat Act, 1937; Sources
of Islamic Law;
A. A. A Fyzee,
Concept of Marriage:
Definition, object, nature,
essential requirements of a
classification of marriage -
Legal effects of valid, void
and irregular marriage -
Muta marriage; Customary
practices and State
Child marriage; Option Of
Puberty; Dower; Kinds of
Dower: Dower when
confirmed; Widow's Right
Unit II Parentage
Parentage Legitimacy, and
Maintenance and education,
Remedies under Islamic
Law and Indian Divorce
Law of Marriage
and Divorce in
Act, 1869(Amended Act)
Modes of Talak Effects of
Talak — Iddat - Nullity of
marriage - Bar to
matrimonial relief; Alimony
and Maintenance: Alimony
and Maintenance as an
independent remedy- A
review under Muslim law,
Indian Divorce Act, 1869,
provisions under the
Criminal Procedure Code,
1973; Maintenance of
divorced Muslim Women
under the Muslim Women
(Protection of Rights on
Divorce) Act, 1986
Wakf and law of
on a Mohammaden in
making a will; Difference
between will and gift, Will
made in death bed or during
illness; Gifts(Hiba) .
Essentials of Valid Gift;
Kinds of Hiba; Revocation
of Gifts; Wakf; Essentials
of valid Wakf: Mutawalli
— Appointment — Powers
and Duties of Mutawalli;
Law relating Pre-emption;
Nature of Right of Pre-
emption; Who can Pre-
empt; Formalities; When
the Right of Pre-emption is
Muslim law of
Muslim law of Inheritance-
Shia and Sunni schools;
Distribution of property
under Indian Succession
Act of 1925(Of Christians,
Parsis)- Domicile- Kinds of
Domicile — Modes of
acquisition of Domicile;
Parsis Intestate succession
and Non Parsis Intestate
certificate, Probate and
letters of administration,
Powers and Duties of
Paras Diwan ,
N.D., Law of
Unit V Wills, Legacies
Wills — Privileged and
unprivileged wills -
Construction of Wills in
brief- Void bequests, void
wills, Kinds of Legacies;
Specific and Demonstrative
Legacy; Ademption of
Legacies; - Protection of
Muslim Law of
property of the deceased;
Appointment of Curator —
Powers and Duties Family
Courts Act, 1984-
Constitution, powers, and
its functions; Need for
Uniform Civil Code-
Article 44 of Indian
Mrs. Annapoorna Shet
Assistant Professor of Law SDM Law College, Mangaluru
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: Political Science
Course Objectives: To guide and acquainted the students with Industrial Relation Framework
Date Topic Methodology Suggested Readings Remarks
Unit 1 18 Hours
Nationality-meaning; elements that help develop
Nationalism- meaning – Underlying principles, merits
and dangers of over nationalism
Internationalism- Reasons for development – Growth
in 20th century-Importance in the world today,
nationalism versus Internationalism – Relationship
between international l relation in international
Politics among Nations
H J Morgento
– Palmer & Parkins
and Politics – J C
– V K Malhotra
– Peu Ghosh
Unit 2 20 Hours National Power- meaning, importance and elements –
PPT Method Politics among Nations
Foreign policy – Meaning – scope- Determinants and
instruments, Non alignment – Importance and factors
Unit 3 23 Hours War – Meaning – Causes – functions and uses and cures, and kinds, wars then and now – Cold War Diplomacy – Meaning – History – kinds – functions, importance, organization, Privileges and immunities International Law – Definition, Importance, Kinds, Sources, codification, enforceability and limitations Economic Interdependence – Reasons, Globalization – International trade and commerce
Unit 4 15 Hours Collective Security : meaning, importance,
features and Implications – Limitation - NATO &
Balance of Power – Meaning, principles, observation methods
Alliances : need – types, working and recent examples Disarmament – Meaning – need, Importance, Kinds – Limitations
PPT Method – Palmer & Parkins
Unit 5 16 Hours Propaganda – Terrorism & Subversion – Nature, Causes Methods, Dangerous Pacific settlement of disputes : Need- Importance – Methods International Organization - League of Nations – Brief History – Causes for failure, Role of ILO UNO – Formation, preamble – Organs – Organization, Working and achievements – Failures WHO – ILO IBRD, UNESO, UNISEF, Declaration of Human Rights Regional Organization – Growth, Aims , Goals Merits and limitations, EC and SAARC
SDM Law College MangaloreCOURSE SYLLABUS Action Plan
Department of LawKarnataka State Law University
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Course Objectives: To guide and acquainted the students with nature, scope and functions of Administrative Law, the nature and control of delegated legislative power, regulation of discretionary powers and general principles of Administrative adjudication.
I. P. Massey -
12 Hours(2 hours in case of emergencies)
Evolution- Nature and
Scope of Administrative
Law- Relation with
Separation of powers and
concepts- Rule of
lawCounsil d' Etate,
Wade - Administrative Law De Smith - Judicial Review
of Administrative Action
S. P. Sathe - Administrative
direction and discretion.
e Law, Latest
power of the
Legislative power of the
of delegation and
control over delegated
PPT Method and Case laws
Judicial power of Administration
Judicial power of
Administration- Nature of
procedure- Principles of
Natural justice- Effect of non-
compliance with principle of
natural justice- Exception to
principle of Natural justice.
Judicial control of
Administrative action -
Writs, Principles and
Procedure - Public Law
review and Private Law
review of Administration
actionLiability of State -
Right of information-
Doctrine of Legitimate
Unit IV & VCorporations and Public undertaking
20 Hours(2 hours in case of emergencies)
Corporations and Public
of EnquiryOmbudsman in
India (Lokpal and
Civil services in India
responsibility- Problems of
deviance Corruption- Mal-
Course: 11 LLB 3yrs Name of Sub: Clinical Course-II: ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTIONS SYSTEMS
Lecture hours/weekly: 6 HoursCourse Objectives
Rajan R.D,A Primer on Alternative Dispute Resolution,NewDelhi, Lexis Nexis, 2006
8 Hours(2 hours on case ofemergencies)
10 Hours (2 hours on case ofemergencies)
GeneralDifferent methodsofdispute resolution1.Inquisitorial method2.Adversarial method3.Other methods – Both formal and Informal like- a)Arbitration, b)Conciliationc)Negotiation,
Case lawsDr. Myneni, ADR,Asia LawHouse, 2017, 3rded,
d)Mediation, etc;Advantages & disadvantages of above methods,Need for ADRs,International Commitments,Domestic Needs,Suitability of ADRs to Particular types of disputes, CPC &ADRs
ArbitrationMeaning of arbitration,Attributes of arbitration, General principles,Different kinds,
Qualities &qualifications of an arbitrator,Arbitration agreement and its drafting,Appointment of arbitrator,Principal steps in arbitration’Arbitral Award,Arbitration under Arbitration and Conciliation Act,1996
annexed Voluntary and
Duties of a
Role of a conciliator,Stages, Procedure, Conciliator under Statues- Industrial
Act,1947 Family Courts
Act,1955 Arbitration &
Meaning, Qualities of negotiator, Role of mediator, Essential characteristics of the mediation process,Voluntary,Collaborative,Controlled,Confidential,Informal, Impartial, Neutral, Self-responsible, Different Models,Code of Conduct for mediators
Sampath Kumar, Mediation concept and technique in support ofResolution of Disputes(National Law School of India University,1991)
Dr. Rekha K
Assistant Professor of LawSDM Law College, Mangaluru
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: BANKING LAW
Lecture hours/weekly: 06 Hours
Course Objectives: Acquaint the students with operational parameters of banking law, and to teach the general principles of banking law and
to develop appreciative faculties of the students in statutory as well as case - law in this area
M L Tannan -
Law of Banking
S R Myneni on Baking Law LatestEdition
Structure - Origin -
Evolution of Banking
Institutions - Types
and functions of
banks - Commercial
banks - functions -
Banking companies in
Basu - Review of current
banking theory and
Paget, Law of Banking -
Butterworths, Londbn L
The Law of Banking and
Bankhs - Eastern Book
Banks – Growth and
in India – Controls by
Lending Credit Policy
– Reconstruction and
Functions of RBI and
Control of RBI over
Avatar Singh -
Corporation Act 1961
Registration, DIC and
Relationshipof Banker and Customer
Banker and customer
Definition of banker
and customer -
-Special relationship -
Banker's duty of
secrecy, banker's duty
to honour cheques,
banker's lien, and
banker's right to set
off- Appropriation of
payments - Garnishee
order - Customer's
duties towards his
banker. Opening of
New Accounts -
Special types df
customers - Minor's
/lC, Joint A/C,
Married women's A/C,
Trust A/C, Joint Hindu
family A/C - Illiterate
to open an account
Act (Read with the
amended Act of 2002)
rules of evidence -
Material alteration -
Noting 'and protest -
Paying banker and
collecting banker -
Bills in sets - Penal
provisions under NI
Act - Banker's book
Unit VLending by Banks
Recent Trends of Banking
12 Hours(3 hours in case of emergencies)
Loans and Advances-Guarantees-Advances secured byCollateral securities –Kinds –Merits.DRT – Default andRecovery
Relevant provisions of
System in India
Ancillary Servicesand E- Banking:Remittances -General, DD, MT, TT,Traveler's cheques,bank orders, creditcard, debit/smartcards, safe depositvaults, gift cheques,stock invest E -Banking - Definition -E – Banking includes -Internet banking,mobile banking, ATMbanking,computerizedbanking -E- bankingservices - retailservices - wholesaleservices – E – Cheque– authentication
TEACHING PLAN 2018-19
VI SEM 5 YEARS –Company Law
Course teacher: Santhosh Prabhu
Course objective: The Course is designed to understand the formation, management and other
activities of the companies. In view of the important developments that have taken place in the
corporate sector. Important regulations pertaining to the issue of shares and the capital raising have
come into force. This course aims to impart the students, the corporate management, control, the
remedies and the government regulation of corporate business and winding up companies.
UNIT I 16 The Companies Act
incorporation- Lifting of
corporate veil, promoters-
duties and liability of
UNITII 12 Procedure of incorporation –
certificate of incorporation-
MOA-AOA- Doctrine of
Krati Rajoria Lecture
UNIT III 10 Board of directors- powers
and functions: distributions of
powers between board of
directors and general
powers and duties of
resolutions- prevention of
Avtar Sing Lecture
UNIT IV 15 Sources of capital : Shares-
Types- allotment-transfer –
privileges of shareholders-
appointment of trustee and
their duties- remedies for
C Singhania Lecture
UNIT V 12 Reconstruction,
amalgamation: Concept –
Ramaiah A Lecture
jurisdiction and powers of
NCLT- takeover and
acquisition of minority
SDM LAW COLLEGE, MANGALORE
COURSE SYLLABUS ACTION PLAN
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES
KARNATAKA STATE LAW UNIVERSITY
Course : II BA. LLB (B) Name of the subject : Macro Economics
Lecture Hours/Weekly: 6 Hours
Course Objectives: The course intends to provide an in depth understanding of N.I-
Accounts, Classical and Keynesian theories of employment, theories of trade cycles and to
have detailed understanding of Public Revenue, Public Expenditure and Public Debt.
Units Date No of
Topic Pre- requisite Methodo
mics and N.I
1. Meaning, Uses
2. Importance of
3. Need for
4. Circular Flow
5. Precautions in
s Theory and
Policy. S Chand
House Pvt Ltd.
3. Savings and
6. Principal of
4. Control of
g Shapiro, Edward.
1. Meaning of
2. Types of Tax-
3. Principles of
Shifting of tax
5. Effects of tax
g Musgarve R.A. and
Public Finance in
Practice. MC Graw
Sing S.K. Public
and Practice. S.
Chand and Co.
2. Causes for
3. Effects of
Musgarve R.A. and
Course: BALLB Semester IV Economics V Paper Name of Sub: MICRO ECONOMICS
Course Objectives: To acquaint the students with micro economic variables such as individuals, firms, markets etc.,
M. L Seth –
K.K Dewett –
Approaches to the
study of Economics –
Uses and Limitations
Economic Static and
Dynamics – Meaning
Stonier and Hague A
Text of Economic Theory
Samuelson – A Text
Book of Economics
Ahuja H. L –
Law of Demand –
in Demand, Extension
decrease in demand,
Elasticity of Demand
– Meaning Types and
Law of Supply and
Elasticity of Supply
analysis - Price Effect
Income Effect and
Types of Production-
Form , Place and
Cost Curves – Short
Run and Lon Run,
Revenue Curves –
Margin Revenue and
Law of increasing and
Diminishing return to
Ahuja H. L – AdvancedEconomic Theory – Micro Economic Analysis
Price and Output
perfect competition –
Short run and long
Price and out Put
Monopoly – Pricing
Unit VFactor Pricing
Modern Theory ofRent and Quasi Rent MarginalProductivity8 theoryof wages, Subsistencetheory of wages Loanable fund theoryof interest
Risk and uncertaintytheory of Profit
M.L Jingan – Micro
Ahuja H. L – Advanced
Economic Theory –
Assistant Professor of Economics SDM Law College, Mangaluru
Course: V LLB 5yrs Name of Sub: Environmental Law Lecture hours/weekly: 6 Hours
Course Objectives: Environmental Problems have attained alarming proportions. It is essential to sensitizethe students to environmental issues and the laws. The important principles in the field like inter-generation equity, carrying capacity, sustainable development and precautionary principle are to beappreciated. The law in Practice is to be analyzed and evaluated. The course is designed towards theseobjectives.
P. LeelaKrishnan, Environmental Law in India,3rd ed., Lexis Nexis
Unit 1The Idea of environment
10 Hours (2 hours on case ofemergenc
The Idea of environmentMeaning &ComponentsPollution:meaning, sources, Kinds ,Effects of PollutionAncient and Medieval WritingsEnvironmental
Case laws Relevant Bare Acts/Notifications
15 to 30 ies) Policy
Environmental Policy and law
Environmental Policy and law : Pre &Post Independence PeriodConstitutional Provisions on Environment and
its protection,Duty to protect environment,Public interest litigationRole of Judiciary,Doctrines of Environmental pollution, Evolving new Principles,Absolute Liability,Polluter pays Principles,Precautionary principle,Inter generational equity principle,Public trust doctrine
Policy in India
,2nd ed. Oxford
International Law and Environm
International law Environmental protectionSustainable Development ,
ies) International conventions in the development of environmental laws and its Policy,Stockholm-Rio &Johnnesberg Declaration,Transboundary Pollution hazards & Regulation, Common Law aspects of Environmental Protection,Criminal Law andenvironment
Water & Air
y) Water Act, 1974
and Air Act, 1981
Boards and its
Remedies in case
of water and air
and its control,
Environment Protection Act 1986
Environment Protection Act 1986ECO-Mark, Environmental Audit Coastal Regulation Zone,Environment Impact Assessment,Discretionary Model and Mandatory Model, Regulation on
Bio-Medical Waste,Disposal of SolidWaste
Dr. Rekha KAssistant Professor of LawSDM Law College, Mangaluru
Course: BALLB/LLB - Name of Sub: PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL
Course Objectives: Acquaint the students with general principles of international law.
No of Hours Topic Pre-requisite
S K Kapoor -
H O Agarwal
Law J G Starke
Nature, definition, origin
and basis of International
Law. Sources of
International Law. Subjects
of International Law.
and Case laws
J B Brierly - The Law of
H Harris - International Law
(Cases and Materials)
Oppenheim - International law,
Volume I, Peace,
Bhagirathlal Das - World Trade
States as subjects of
International Law: -States
in general; Recognition;
State territorial sovereignty
Unit III April 1 to
(4 hours in
State Jurisdiction: Law of
the sea; State
to rights and obligations.
Unit IV April 21
State and Individual -
Extradition, Asylum and
Nationality; the agents of
diplomatic envoys, consuls
and other representatives;
the law and practice as to
The United Nations
Organization - Principal
organs and their functions
World Trade Organization-
Main features International
Suma Suresh Kogilgeri
Course: BALLB Semester II Economics Paper II (Major-Minor) Name of Sub: Money, Banking and
Course Objectives: To provide student theoretical knowledge about Money, Banking and International Trade
M L Seth- Monitory
D M Mithani –
M.L Jingon –
Meaning – Definition
of Money and its
Supply of money –
M1, M2, M3, M4
Value of Money –
Index Numbers –
Simple and Weighted,
Soderstein B –
M.C Vaish - Money Bankingand International Trade
Construction of index
Quantity Theory of
Money – Cash
and cash balance
Deflation – Types
Causes and effects
KPM – Money
Sayers R.S –
Paul R R – Monitory
Money market –
Balance Sheet of a
12 Hours(2 hours in case of
Functions of central
bank – Methods of
Economics D M Mithani – Lecture
Theory and Modern
Terms of Trade
Trade barriers –
Tariffs and Quotas
Unit VBalance of payments and Foreign Exchange
Balance of Trade and
Balance of Payment
Balance of Payment –
Causes and Methods
rate, Demand for and
Supply of foreign
methods of exchange
control, Fixed and
Brief History of GATT,
Theory – Micro
WTO – Objectives –
FDI – nature – Role
and Operation of
VI SEM 3 YEARS –Law relating to International Trade Economics
International Trade has assumed great importance in 21st century and its
regulation under law has become a necessity to prevent exploitation of
weaker people. A new legal regime to regulate international trade is
emerging. Students of law should have understanding of these
developments. This course is worked out to provide the future lawyers
basic inputs in the area of international trade law.
MFN, Tariffs &
M.B. Rao &
Sale of Goods
Indira Carr Lecture
goods in transit
goods by sea,
land and air
Licences- E & I
12 Law governing
FDI, FIIs, NRI
Foreign co. &
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: LABOUR LAW - II Lecture hours/weekly: 18 Hours
Constitution and Labour
Welfare – Labour System
Abolition Act 1976
Equal Remuneration Act
1976 – Inter State
Migration of Workers Act,
S.C Srivastava – Industrial Relations andLabour Laws
O.P Malhotra – Law of Industrial Disputes
P.L Malik – Industrial Law
Protection of Women
Against Sexual Harassment
12 Hours(2 hours
Concept and Importance of
Social Security – Influence
of ILO – Constitutional
Provisions - Unorganised
Workers Social Security
Act 2008- Problems of
Lecture Method and Caselaws
Unorganized Sectors -
Schemes – Funding
- Its Composition and
Powers – Globalization –
Privatization and Open
Economy and Effects – The
Economic Special Zones
Wages Bonus and Gratuity
Context Regular and
Periodic payment of wages
– Payment of Wages Act
Payment of Bonus Act 1965
Payment of Gratuity Act-
Child Labour – Human
Rights Perspectives and
Constitutional Provisions –
Child Labour (Prohibition
ies) and Regulation) Act 1986
with latest amendment
Unit IV &V
Provisionsapplicableto shops and establishments
Protection of Unorganized
Various legislations and
necessity of common
legislation – Karnataka
Establishment Act , 1961 its
New Labour law Codes
Policy and Idea behind
Decent Work Agenda From
Labour Law II
The students are acquainted with the Industrial framework relating to wages, social
security and welfare of labour. Referring to the Constitutional provisions and the ILO
Conventions and recommendations the labour welfare is generally envisaged shall be studied.
Students will be taught the provisions of Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986,
the payment of gratuity Act, 1965, the payment of bonus act 1965, payment of wages Act, 1936.
These legislations are to be studied to realize the importance of these legislation and to apply
them in the day to day life. These above mentioned legislations are to be analysed by examining
historical background, underlying its objectives, judicial interpretations and effectiveness of
these legislations in the days of changed economic policies.
Topic / Syllabus Pre –
Unit I February
Dimensions of Labour
Welfare; Bonded Labour
Abolition Act, 1976,
Equal Remuneration Act,
1979, Protection of
Women against Sexual
Harassement Act, 2013
S N Mishra Lecture
Judgment of the
and the various
High Courts in
Unit II February-
13 Social Security- Concept
and importance of Social
28- 13 Security – influence of
Social Security Act, 2008-
importance and problems
of Unorganized sector,
Wage worker, etc.
and powers, etc.-
evaluation of working of
the legislation over a
effectiveness of social
legislations in under new
economic policy, SEZ-
objectives, scope and
implication of The
Unit III March -
21 Wages, Bonus, Gratuity
– context – necessity of
regular and periodic
payment of wages without
The Payment of Wages
Act, 1936- definitions-
employed person, factory,
industrial and other
establishment, wages etc-
Inspectors and Payment of
Context- a right to share
in profit even after
payment of wages
according contract of
employment? Is it breach
of contract or an implied
term of the contract? –
concepts of bonus and
right to share in profits-
The payments and Bonus
Act, 1965- definitions-
judicial interpretations and
constitutionality of the
provision relating to
Governments power to
Context- reward for long
drawn loyal service –
employers’ liability or
good gesture? Historical
payment of Gratuity Act,
1972- definitions- judicial
restrictive interpretation of
the definition of
employee- payment of
gratuity- determination of
the amount of gratuity-
Unit IV April -
24 Child Labour- practice
and reasons for child
labour- competing views
on necessity and
feasibility of abolition of
child labour- human right
for the protection of child-
Regulation Act, 1986-
relating to prohibition of
child labour in certain
processes- regulation of
conditions of work –
Amendments made to the
Amendment Act, 2016
22 Provisions applicable to
Necessity of protection of
unorganized labour in
shops and establishments
by regulating their
working conditions – a
Bird’s eye view on
legislations on shops and
establishments in different
states and the necessity of
common legislation – the
Karnataka Shops and
Establishment Act, 1961-
application of the Act,
Hours of work, Annual
leave with wages- wages
and compensation –
employment of children
and women authorities
New Labour Law Code’s
– Policy of Ese of doing
business with India and
Labour Implications – the
idea behind Decent Work
Agenda from ILO.
Prescribed Books :
S. C. Srivastava – Industriall Relations and Labour Laws
Dr. V . G Goswami – Labour Industrial Laws
S. N. Mishra – Labour and Industrial Laws
S. C. Srivastava – Treatise on Social Security
Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 1976
Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
Inter-State Migration Workers Act, 1979
Protection of Women Against Sexual Harassment Act, 2013
The Karnataka Shops and Commercial Establishment Act, 1961
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation)Act 1986
The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
The Industrial Dispute Act, 1947
The Payment of Wages Act, 1936
Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008
The Economic Special Zones Act, 2005
Reference Books :
O.P. Malhotra – Law of Industrial Dispute
G Ramanujam – Indian Labour Movement
P. L. Malik- Industrial Law
Mamoria And Mamoria – Dynamics of Industrial Relations
First National Commission Report , 1969
The Second National Commission Report, 2002
International Labour Conventions and Recommendations.
In the society wherein all major ventures are getting corporatized, a law student should
acquaint himself with the knowledge of special contracts apart from equipping himself with
general principles of contract. This course equips the students to better appreciate the legal
services required in a corporate office so that he / she can enhance his relevance as a lawyer in
15 Contract of Indemnity -
of Indemnity- Definition,
Nature and Scope- Rights
of Indemnity holder-
Contract of Guarantee-
Definition, Nature and
between contract of
Indemnity and Guaranty
– Rights of surety –
discharge of surety-
extent of Surety’s
liability- Co- Surety
13 Contract of Bailment-
Definition- kinds- duties
of Bailor and Bailee-
rights of finder of Goods
as bailee- laibilitytowards
true owner – rights to
dispose of the goods.
Contract of Pledge –
definition – comparison
with bailment – rights
and duties of Pawnor and
21 Agency – Definition –
creation of agency- kinds
of agents- distinction
between agent and
servant- rights and duties
of agent – relation of
principal with third
parties- rights and duties
of Agent – extent of
Agents Authority –
personnel liability of
Agent- termination of
24 Indian Partnership Act
– Definition – Nature,
Mode of determining the
existence of Partnership-
relation of partner with
one and another – rights
and duties of partner-
relation of partners with
third parties – types of
partners- admission of
partners – retirement-
expulsion- dissolution of
firm- registration of
22 Sale of Goods Act-
Definition – the contract
of sale- Condition and
Warranties- passing of
property-transfer of title-
Performance of Contract-
Rights of Unpaid Seller
against goods –
Remedies for Breach of
Sale Deed and
various types of
Avtar Singh - Law of Contract
J P Verma – The Law of Parntership in India
Saharay H. K – Indian Partnership and Sale of Goods Act
Krishnan Nair – Law of Contract
Reference books :
Pollock and Mulla – Indian Contract Act
Anson – The Law of Contract
Avtar Singh – Sale of Goods Act
Mulla –Sale of GoodsAct
S D Singh and S P Gupta- Law of Partnership
SDM Law College, Mangalore
Course Syllabus Action Plan
Department of Humanities
Course: I BA.LLB (A Batch) Name of Sub: Indian Society: Continuity and Change
Course Objectives: The course intends to provide a comprehensive, integrate and objective profile of an Indian society. Further, the ubiquity of marriage, family, kinship and caste along with regional variations and changing dimension has also been highlighted
1. Nature and
2. Evolution of
Pujan Kumar Sen,
Page No: 01 to 88
Ram Ahuja, Indian
S C Dube, Indian Society, First
Edition, Reprint, 2013
C N Shankar Rao, Sociology of
Vinita Pandey, Indian Society and
4. Unity and
Page No: 01 to 21
1. Structural -
(M N Srinivas,
2. Indological or
B K Nagla, Indian
2015, Page No: 67
to 270; 373 to 420
Ram Ahuja, Indian Social System,
Yogendra Singh, Modernization of
Indian Tradition, 2016
to 05 April
Mukherjee, G S
Perspective: D P
Mukherjee, A R
Perspective: B R
05 April to
1. Marriage and
2. Marriage and
C N Shankar Rao,
Reprint 2018, Page
No: 101 to 153
Irawathi Karve, Kinship
Organization in India
3. Basic concepts
5. Changes and
challenges to the
Indian Society and
Page No: 50 to 93
Class in India
1. Evolution of
Veena Das, Handbook of Indian
20 April to
22 Hours period, Medieval
2. Caste among
3. Are caste
4. Changes in caste
5. Theories of
origin of caste
No: 228 to321
Dr B R Ambedkar, Castes in India
G S Ghurye, Caste and Race in India
3. Use of native
categories in the
T K Oommen and Partha N
Mukherji, Indian Sociology:
Reflections and Interpretation
4. Sociology for
5. Sociology of
Page No: 421 to
Surendra Sharma, Sociology in
India: A Perspective from Sociology
Yogendra Singh, Sociology for
India: The Emerging Perspective
Course: II BA.LLB (A &B Batch) Name of Sub: Recent Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Lecture Hours/Weekly: 6+6 Hours
Course Objectives: The aim of the course is to introduce the contributions of pioneers, prominent thinkers to the students. The main
focus of this course will be on Structural-Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Feminist Theories. The course will also examine the
recent theoretical relevance and analytical utility of Post-Modern Social Theories
1. Nature of
Jonathan H Turner. Contemporary
4. Levels of
5. Elements of
George Ritzer: Contemporary
Sociological Theory and its
Classical Roots: The Basics
to 03 April
1. Concept of
2. The Problem of
of R K Merton-
Jonathan H Turner: The Structure of
04 April to
1. Emergence of
2. Marxian Theory
Lewis A Coser: Masters of
30 April to
1. Historical Roots:
4. Post Modern
6. Black Feminism
Neeru Tandon: Feminism: A
Sara Delamont: Feminist Sociology
Kristen A Myers: Feminist
Foundations; Towards Transforming
2. The Juggernaut
of Modernity –
Lewis A Coser:
3. Risk Society-
5. Contributions of
J Derrida and
6. Critics of
Course: BALLB/LLB/BBALLB Name of Sub: Property Law Lecture hours/weekly: 18 Hours
Course Objectives: To guide the students about concept of Property and general principles governing T.P Act
Dr. H. N Tiwari on
Supplementary Readings Remarks
Introduction General Principles
12 Hours (2 hours in case of
General Principles of
Transfer of Property Act –
Concept and Meaning of
Immovable properties –
Transfer of immovable
Persons Competent to
Mulla, Transfer of Property Act Shukla S.N – The Transfer of Property Act
emergencies) 12 Hours (2 hours in case of emergencies)
Transfer - Operation of
Transfer – Conditions
restraining alienation and
restrictions repugnant to the
interest created - Rule
against perpetuity and
Direction for accumulation
– Vested and contingent
interest, Void conditions,
Rule of acceleration,
fulfillment of conditions
Unit II Doctrine of
Doctrine of Election –
Transfer by ostensible and
co owner – Apportionment
– Priority of Rights – Rent
paid to holder under
defective title –
Lecture Method and Case laws
Transfers improvements made by
bonafide holder – Doctrine
of Lis Pendens – Fradulent
transfer and part
Mortgage of Property
Mortgages of Immovable
property – Definition –
Kinds of Mortgages – and
their features – Rights and
Liabilities – Priority of
Securities – Marshalling
and Contribution – Charges
Sale of Property
Sale - Rights and
Liabilities of Seller and
buyer before and after
completion of sale –
Difference between sale
and contract for sale –
Lease – Rights and
liabilities of lessor and
lessee – Determination and
Holding Over. Difference
between sale and Contract
Unit IV & V
Exchange and Trust Act 1882
Exchange – Definition –
Mode – Actionable Claims
– Gift Meaning, Scope –
Mode of Transfer –
Universal Gifts – Onerous
Law of Trust with Fiduciary
Relations – Definition –
Relationship with Debt,
Agency = and Contract
Creation of Trust –
Appointment, Duties and
Liabilities of Beneficiary –
Vacating the Office of
trustee and Extinction of
Law of Trust by
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Case Study and Guesstimates for Data Science, Business Analyst and MBA candidates Ability to solve a problem is the key to success in most of the private domain, but it gains a lot of importance when it comes to Data Science
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IPv6 for Business Customers – Colt's Case Study Javier Benitez, 11 June 2013 Network and Platform, Strategy & Architecture. Colt IPv6 for Business Customers Case Study presented at the Swiss IPv6 Council in Zurich in June 2013
20 Hours (2 hours incase ofMarine Insurance:Nature and Scope-Classification ofMarine policiesK S N Murthyand K V SSharma -LectureMethod andCase lawsemergencies) Insurable interest
Case Study company O2 is the commercial brand of Telefónica UK Limited and is a leading digital communications company
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